Q1: List features of The Great Bath.
Ans : The Great Bath was lined with bricks, coated with plaster and made water tight with a layer of natural tar. There were steps leading down from two sides into the tank.
Q2: Write about Harappan seals.
Ans : Harappan seals had pictures of animals that relate to a wet and marshy environment. Rhinoceroses, elephants, and tigers were placed in the midst of marshy plants.
Q3: Why were metals, writing, wheel and plough important for the Harappans?
Ans : Metals, writing, wheel and plough were important for the Harappans because metals were used to make tools and ornaments; writing helped them to know scriptures; wheel helped them to move from one place to another as carts came into being and finally plough was important to plough land and grow crops for their food.
Q4: When was cotton cultivated at Mehrgarh?
Ans :Cotton was probably grown at Mehragarh about 7000 years ago. Mehragarh was also the first site in India where agricultural activities took place.
Q5: How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in the Harappan civilization?
Ans : The archaeologists have found actual pieces of cloth attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro. As we know that cloth is made up of cotton, probably, the farmers grew cotton at that time. The archaeologists have also found spindle whorls, made of terracotta and faience which were used to spin thread. This proves that the cloth was used in Harappan civilization.
Q6: Describe the life of the people in Harappan cities?
Ans : The Harappan city was a very busy place. There were people who planned the construction of special buildings in the city. They may have kept the most valuable objects, such as ornaments of gold and silver, or beautiful beads, for themselves. And there were scribes, people who knew how to write, who helped prepare the seals, and perhaps wrote on other materials that have not survived till date. Men and women, craftsmen, made all kinds of things – either in their own homes, or in special workshops. People were travelling to distant lands at that time by carts to inland places or by ship to foreign lands.
Q7: What is the meaning of seals and sealing?
Ans :Seals may have been used to stamp bags or packets containing goods that were sent from one place to another. After a bag was closed or tied, a layer of wet clay was applied on the knot, and the seal was pressed on it. The impression of the seal is known as sealing. Harappan people used the seals for signs of proprietorship, against ill or bad omens etc also.
Q8: What were the main Harappan towns in Gujrat?
Ans : The main Harappan towns in Gujrat were Dholavira, located on Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch and Lothal that stood beside a tributary of the Sabarmati, close to the gulf of Khambat.
Q9: What was the main food of people in the cities?
Ans : The main food of the Harrappans were wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard together with meat, milk and milk products.
Q10: What types of metals were used to make tools in earlier cities?
Ans : There were mainly four types of metals that were used to make tools in earlier cities. They were - Copper, bronze, gold, and silver. Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels. Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.
Q11: What type of houses were found in the earlier cities?
Ans : In Harrappan city, which is the first urban site in India, houses were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard.
Q12: Write down the names of the main earliest cities?
Ans : The names are: Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Kalibangan, Rakhi Garhi, Chanhudaro, Dholavira, Surkotada, Lothal and Sotkakoh.
Q13: What was the use of the Great Bath? What materials were used in the great bath?
Ans : Important people (priests, rulers) took ritual baths in this tank. The tank was lined with kiln burnt bricks, plaster of gypsum and bitumen was used to make the tank water resistant.
Q14: List three factors which show that Lothal was an important production centre of the Harappan civilisation.
Following factors show that Lothal was an important production centre of the Harappan civilisation:
Q15: What led to the decline of the Harappan civilisation?
The historians are uncertain regarding the causes for the decline of the Harappan civilisation. Various factors were responsible for the end of the physical existence of the Harappan cities.
Q16: What were the important crafts of the Harappan people?
In the Harappan cities, there were men and women who made all kinds of things either in their own homes or in special workshop known as crafts persons.
Q17: What were the main features of the cities built during the Harappa Civilisation?
Ans : Harappan cities were divided into two or more parts. The western part was higher and was also called the citadel. The eastern part or the lower town was made up of baked bricks. These bricks were laid in interlocking pattern that made the wall strong. Some of the cities also had a huge water tank or ‘The Great Bath’. Fire altars for worshipping were also found in these tanks. Most of the houses were either one or two stories high. They were built around a courtyard. The cities also had covered drainage systems. The drainage system also had manhole at regular intervals for cleaning up
Q18: Describe the Great Bath.
Ans : The Great Bath is a tank excavated in Mohenjodaro. It has steps leading from two sides. The bath was lined with bricks and coated with bitumen to make it water proof.
Q19: What was special about the roads in the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans : The roads were wide and cut each other at right angles. Houses were built on both sides and covered drains ran along the streets.
Q20: What are the two important salient features about the constructions excavated in the Indus Valley Civilisation?
Ans : It has been found that baked bricks were used in all buildings. These bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern to make strong walls.
Long Q & A :
Q1: Write about the drains in the Harappan cities.
Ans : People of Harappa paid special attention to the drainage system. Many of the cities had covered drains. All the drains were laid out in straight lines having a gentle slope so that water could flow through it. Drains in the houses were connected to the street drains.Inspection holes were provided at regular intervals to ensure proper cleaning of the drains.
Q2: List some of the important architectural features of Dholavira.
The city of Dholavira was located on Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat. Here fresh water was available and the soil was very fertile.