Short Q & A :
Q1: Define government.
Ans : Government is the agency or machinery through which the Will of the State is formulated and realized. It has the authority to make laws, enforce and regulate laws. It is the instrument of the State.
Q2: How do people participate in the formation of the government?
Ans : In a democracy the representatives (who forms the government) are elected by the people through voting in elections. Representatives take decisions on behalf of the people. All governments are elected for a fixed period that is for five years.
Q3: Who was Nelson Mandela?
Ans : Nelson Mandela is the famous leader of Africa. In his fight against racism he sacrificed twenty six years in prison. Finally, he succeeded and in 1994 South Africa became a democratic country in which people of all races were considered equal.
Q4: List some points showing how the non-whites were discriminated against white people.
Q5: India is the largest democratic country where all the people have equal rights to say in the government affairs? Do you agree with this statement?
Ans : India is a democratic country, where all the people have a say in the affairs of the government. An attempt has been made in the Indian Constitution to incorporate the interests of all the religions. Special provisions had been made for the interests of the minorities. People are empowered to raise their voice on any issue with which they are not satisfied with
Q6: Under which article of the Indian Constitution “Untouchablity is banned"?
Ans : Article 17 of the Indian constitution states that untouchablity is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability’’ shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
Q7: Write short notes on a leader remembered for his contribution against untouchability movement.
Ans : Dr.Bhim Rao Ambedkar fought for the rights of the untouchables. He was the chairman of the drafting committee of the constituent assembly and ensured that the provisions of reservation should be incorporated in the Constitution of India. He believes in the principles of equality and justice.
Q8: Why do conflicts occur in our society?
Ans : Conflicts occur when people of different cultures, religions and regions or economic backgrounds do not get along with each other, or when some among them feel they are being discriminated against. Such people may use violent means to settle their differences.
Q9: Does parliamentary democracy allows people to organise movement?
Ans : Yes. It allows people to participate by organising themselves into social movements that seek to challenge the government and its functioning.
Q10: Explain the concept of Universal Adult Franchise.
Ans : Right to vote is a bedrock of a democratic system. It should be equally available to all. Citizens cast their vote at regular interval. The constitution of India has introduced universal adult franchise. All the adults above the age of 18 years, irrespective of their castes, colour and or sex are entitled to participate in the election.
Q11: What is the main dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu?
Ans : The major dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is water stored in Mettur dam and Krishnasagar dam because Krishnasagar dam fulfills Karnataka needs for irrigating and Mettur dam is used for crops grown in the delta region of state. Each state want water for its need and claimed more proportion. This dispute is also known as Cauvery River Dispute.
Q12: List some important powers of the President in India.
Ans : The President appoints the Attorney- General of India, the judges of the Supreme Court and of the High courts, the Governors, Ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives of India abroad. He has the power to sign all the international treaties and agreements. He represents India in International Conference. A money bill cannot be introduced in the parliament without the approval of the president. He has the power to reduce the punishment that a person receives.
Q13: When South Africa become a democratic country? When did election held and who declared as the winner of election?
Ans : South Africa became a democratic country in 1994. The country's first non-racial election held on April 26-28, 1994, resulting in the victory of Nelson Mandela as President on May 10, 1994.
Q14: Define Social Equality in detail.
Ans : In federalism, power is divided between the Central and the State government. Both the government enjoys their powers independently of one another.
Q15: What is 'African National Congress'?
Ans : Social equality means the absence of discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, sex, religion, or language. Under the social equality everyone has equal status and opportunities..
Q16: What is 'Representative Democracy’?
Ans : African National Congress has been the ruling party of post apartheid South Africa. It had its origin from the South African Native National Congress. The party was formed to increase the rights of the Black South African population.
Q17: Describe the conditions of Blacks in South Africa under apartheid law?
Ans : Representative Democracy' is a form of government in which people indirectly participate in the decision-making of the government.
Q18: What is meant by political equality?
Ans : Apartheid laws categorised the South African population into Black, White and Coloured race. The law separated the residential areas of the Blacks and Whites. Blacks were restricted from renting property in the areas deemed as white zones. They were not given any right to take part in the South African government.
Q19: Why do we have regular elections in a democratic country?
Ans : In a democracy, political equality refers to the amount to which citizens have an equal voice over governmental decisions. One of the foundational principles in a democracy is the equal consideration of the preferences and interests to all citizens. Everyone has the right to vote whether he is rich or poor, educated or uneducated.
Q20: Define fraternity.
Ans : Election is a tool for selecting representatives in modern democracies. The people choose their representatives through election to hold public office. In a country, citizens who are above 18 years of age are entitled to vote. The elected representatives are accountable to the people.
Q21: What do you mean by the 'Republican form of government'?
Ans : Our society is divided into many classes, castes, religions and languages. The Constitution places special importance to fraternity which means the spirit of brotherhood. It is the principle that gives unity and solidarity to social life. It is difficult thing to achieve.
Q22: What is the importance of public opinion? Name the agencies that are helpful in the formation of public opinion?
Ans : Public opinion contributes a lot to the development of social life. It does not allow the government to be absolute. The views, interests and aspirations of the people constitute the core of the democratic system. Public opinion ensures democratic communications. The following agencies are helpful in the formation of public opinion, press, radio, television, cinema, political parties and election. Mass media plays a crucial role in reflecting public opinion. Freedom of expression can be made by all classes of people whether rich or poor through these agencies.
Q23: Describe the functions of the government in a developing country?
Ans : In developing country, it is very important function of the government to maintain law and order. It should make such laws which regulate the relations among the people. A country cannot make progress if people are prey to internal disturbances. The government must protect the life and property of the people. It is one of the primary duties of the government. It should also maintain a healthy relation with the other countries.
Q24: Who elects the President of India? List any three presidents of India?
Ans : The President of India is elected by the members of an 'Electoral College' consisting of the elected members of Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha and by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Election is conducted through secret ballot. Three presidents of India are: Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan and Dr. Zakir Hussain.
Q25: Mention any two ways by which people participate in the government.
People participate in many ways:
Q26: List any three power of the prime Minister in India.
Ans : The Prime Minster controls the Cabinet and the Parliament through the party. He coordinates the works of different departments. He exercises the supervision of different ministries. The Prime Minster distributes and redistributes the work to the ministers. He also has the power to dismiss the ministers and is responsible for advising the President in distribution of work of the government to various departments of the government.
Q27: What action does the government took to ensure that all people are treated equally?
Ans : According to Indian constitution, all citizens are equal in the eye of law. They are entitled to equal treatment before law. It makes no discrimination between the citizens on the basis of religion, sex, caste or colour. They enjoy equal opportunities and participation in the political life.
Q28: Write short notes on Rajya sabha.
Ans : In the Parliament, Rajya Sabha is the upper house with 250 members. Out of 250, 238 members are elected by Legislative Assemblies of the State and Union territories. Twelve members are nominated by the President from eminent personalities in the field of sciences, literature, arts, businessmen community etc.
Q29: Why do we need election in a democratic country?
Ans : In a democratic country people elect their rulers through election. It is through election that various governmental structures are established and made functional. People exercise control over their representatives. Election gives leaders an opportunity to meet all kinds of people and educate them about political, economic and social problem the country faced with. A government based on the consent of the citizens is more secured than one which people have no participation.
Long Q & A :
Q1: Give differences between the democratic government and a dictatorial government?
Ans : In a democratic government either people rule themselves or they are ruled by their elected representatives. The real power is in the hands of the people. In a dictatorial form of government, all the governmental powers are vested in the hand of one person or political party. People are not given permission to take part in the working and decision making of the government.
Q2: Explain social justice in detail.
Ans : Justice is defined as social, economic and political. Social justice implies that all citizens are treated equally irrespective of their status in society as a result of the accident of birth, race, caste, religion, sex, title etc. However the state may make provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes of citizens.
Q3: What do you understand by the term participation? Why do conflicts arise? Give an example of conflict in India.
Ans : People’s participation can be understood as the participation of people in governance through elections and other means such as rallies, processions, signature campaigns etc. People participate by taking an interest in the working of the government and criticising it when required. By participating, people express their opinions and public opinion thus created is very essential in a democracy. Conflicts arise when the interest of the people of different cultures, religions, regions or economic background contradict. For example, river can be a source of conflict like the Cauvery River dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.