Short Q & A :
Q1: Why the demand of silk increased in the European markets?
Ans : Before entering into these markets, the Chinese traders along with their goods used to pass through dangerous roads or through mountains and deserts. People living along these routes often demanded money to allow passes due to which their demand increased in the European markets.
Q2: Write about Kushanas income in the form of taxes.
Ans : The Kushanas used to rule over central Asia and north-west India. They ruled around 2000 years ago. They used to demand payments for allowing traders to pass through the silk route; thus, earned huge income in the form of taxes.
Q3: Write about Christians of Kerela.
Ans : They were called Syrian Christians because they came from west Asia. They were amongst the oldest Christian communities of the world.
Q4: Writ short notes on “Jesus Christ”.
Ans : Jesus Christ, the founder of Christianity, was born in Bethelehem. Christianity emerged in West Asia about 2000 years ago.
Q5: Why Satavahana rulers were called the lords of Dakshinapatha?
Ans : All Satavahana rulers were called the lords of Dakshinapatha as they were ruling in the west often controlling the route to the southern regions.
Q6: Why silk was expensive in ancient time?
Ans : Silk was expensive because it had to be brought all the way from China, along dangerous roads, through mountains and desert as only Chinese knew the technique for making silk.
Q7: Write short notes on “Ashvaghosha”.
Ans : Ashvaghosa was a poet and is considered to be the first Indian dramatist. He is considered as the great Indian poet before the Kalidasa. Among his other composition was Saundranandakavya. It is believed that he lived during the first or second century AD.
Q8: Was it easy for foreign traveller to enter the Buddhist Monastery at Nalanda?
Ans : It was very difficult to enter this Monastery. New entrants were asked difficult questions from by the gatekeeper. Only those who gave correct answer were allowed to enter. Mostly seven or eight out of ten were not able to answer the questions asked by them.
Q9: How did the chiefs of the sangam period gather their resources?
Ans : The chiefs did not collect regular taxes. Instead, they demanded gifts from the people. They also went on military expeditions and collected tribute from the neighbouring areas. They kept some of the wealth and distributed the rest among their family members and supporters.
Q10: Who were the muvendar during the sangam period?
Ans : Muvendar is a Tamil word which means three chiefs. It was used for the heads of three ruling families- the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas, who became powerful in south India around 2300 years ago.
Q11: What were the things carried by Xuan Zang while returning from India?
Ans : Xuan Zang carried back with him statues of the Buddha made of gold, silver and sandalwood, and over 600 manuscripts loaded on the back of 20 horses. Some 50 manuscripts were lost when the boat on which he was crossing the Indus capsized.
Q12: Who were known as “lords of the dakshinapatha”?
Ans : Gautamiputra Satakarni and other Satavahana rulers were known as “lords of the dakshinapatha” literally meaning the route leading to the south.
Q13: Explain the Silk Route.
Ans : The techniques of making silk were kept very secretly in China. People who went to distant lands from China on foot, on horseback and on camels, carried silk with them. The paths which they followed came to be known as the Silk Route.
Q14: Why did the kings try to control the Silk Route?
Ans : kings tried to control the route because they could benefit by collecting taxes, tributes and gifts brought by the traders travelling along the route. In return these kings protected these traders from the robbers.
Q15: What is the meaning of Bhakti?
Ans : Bhakti means a person’s devotion to his or her chosen deity. Whether rich or poor, low or high caste, man or woman, anyone could follow the path of Bhakti.
Q16: Who were the best –known rulers who controlled the Silk Route?
Ans : The Kushanas, who ruled over central Asia and north-west India, controlled the Silk Route. Their two major centers of power were Peshawar and Mathura. During their rule, a branch of the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down to the seaports at the mouth of the river Indus.
Q17: What was Theravada Buddhism?
Ans : The older form of Buddhism was known as Theravada Buddhism. It was more popular in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand andIndonesia.
Q18: What do the accounts of Chinese Buddhist pilgrims throw light on?
The accounts of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims throw light on
Q19: What was emphasized by those who followed the Bhakti?
Ans : Those who followed the path of Bhakti emphasized devotion and individual worship of a god or goddess rather than the performance of elaborate sacrifices.
Q20: From where is the word ‘Hindu’ derived?
Ans : The word ‘Hindu’ is derived from the river Indus. It was used by Arabs and Iranians to refer to people who lived to the east of the river, and to their cultural practices, including their religious belief.
Q21: Who were the Kushanas?
Ans : They were the rulers who ruled over central Asia and north-west India around 2000 years ago. Peshawar and Mathura were their two major centres of power. Taxila was also a part of their kingdom. Kushanas were the best-known rulers who controlled the Silk Route. During their rule, a branch of the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down to the seaports at the mouth of the river Indus, from where silk was shipped westwards to the Roman Empire. They also issued gold coins, which were used by traders along the Silk Route.
Q22: Who was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni?
Ans : Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni was the most important ruler of the Satavahanas. An inscription composed by his mother, Gautami Balashri, gives a lot of information regarding him. Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni and other Satavahana rulers were known as lords of the dakshinapatha. Dakshinapatha was the route leading to the south, which was also used as a name for the entire southern region.In order to control the coasts, he sent his army to the eastern, western and southern coasts.
Q23: What does the term Sangam Age signify?
Ans : Tamilakam or what we today know as South India was ruled in the post Mauryan period by three powerful dynasties. The Sangam literature is our main source of information about these dynasties. It is this period of history that is known as the Sangam Age.
Q24: What was Kanishka’s contribution to the spread of Buddhism?
Ans : Kanishka patronized Buddhist monks and donated money to build monasteries. The Fourth Budhhist council was organised during his reign.
Q25: What are the features of the southern half of the Indian sub-continent?
Ans : The southern half of the Indian sub-continent is marked by a long coastline, hills, plateaus and river valleys. Kaveri is the most fertile river valley.
Long Q & A :
Q1: What was the basis of belief in the system of Bhakti?
Ans : According to this system of belief, if a chosen deity was worshipped with a pure heart, the deity would appear in the form in which he or she may have desired. So the deity could be thought of as human being, lion, tree or any other form. Once this idea gained acceptance, artists made beautiful images of these deities.
Q2: Explain the term “muvendar”
Ans : It is a Tamil word meaning three chiefs, used for the heads of three ruling families – the Cholas, Cheras and the Pandyas. They became powerful in South India around 2300 years ago. Each of the three chiefs had two centres of power: one on inland and one on the coast. Out of these six cities, two were very important: Puhar or Kaveripattinam, the port of the Cholas, and Madurai, the capital of the Pandyas. The chiefs did not collect regular taxes. Instead, they demanded and received gifts from people. They also went on military expeditions and collected tribute from the neighbouring areas.