Class - X
TIME: 3 Hrs.
Read the following instructions very carefully and strictly follow them :
1. The question paper comprises five sections - A, B, C, D and E. There are 32 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A - Question no. 1 to 16 are Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B - Question no. 17 to 22 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. The answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
4. Section C - Question no. 23 to 26 are Source Based Questions, carrying 4 marks each.
5. Section D - Question no. 27 to 31 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying 5 marks each. The answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
6. Section E - Question no. 32 is Map-Based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 32.1 from History (2 marks) and 32.2 from Geography (3 marks).
7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.
8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
1. Which of the following revolutions is called as the first expression of `Nationalism’? (1 Mark)
(a) French Revolution
(b) Russian Revolution
(c) Glorious Revolution
(d) The Revolution of the Liberals
Q.2. Match the following items given in Column A with those in Column B:
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(a) (i) – (a), (ii) – (d), (iii) – (b), (iv) – (c)
(b) (i) – (d), (ii) – (c), (iii) – (a), (iv) – (b)
(c) (i) – (b), (ii) – (a), (iii) – (d), (iv) – (c)
(d) (i) – (b), (ii) – (d), (iii) – (a), (iv) – ©
Q.3. Complete the following table with appropriate terms in places of A and B. (1 marks)
Ans. (A) Pipeline
Q.4. Resources that are surveyed and their quantity and quality have been determined for utilisation is known as – (1 Mark)
(a) Potential resources
(c) Developed resources
Q.5. Name any two fibre crops. (1 marks)
Ans. Cotton and jute.
By which name the `slash and burn’ agriculture is known in Mexico and Central America?
Q.6. Which one of the following factors plays the most important role in the location of an industry in a particular region? (1 Mark)
(a) Raw material
(c) Least production cost
Q.7. _______________________ is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films. (1 marks)
Ans. The Central Board of Film Certification.
Q.8. Explain the meaning of `Majoritarianism’ as practised in Sri Lanka. (1 marks)
Ans. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over the government by virtue of their majority and thus, the democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy. It followed majoritarianism.
How is the community government elected in Belgium?
Ans. Community government in Belgium is elected by people belonging to one language community -Dutch, French or German.
Q.9. Consider the following statements regarding the language policy of the Indian Federation. (1 Mark)
1. Hindi was identified as the official language.
2. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as scheduled languages.
3. English can be used along with Hindi for official purposes.
Choose the right option from the following:
(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 2
(c) only 1
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Q.10. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion (A): Democracy is a legitimate government.
Reason (R): Regular, free and fair elections are the spirit of democracy.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are incorrect.
(c) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect
(d) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct
Q.11. Correct the following sentence and rewrite it: Bihar has the highest per capita income in India during 2015-16. (1 marks)
Ans. Haryana has the highest per capita income in India during 2015-16.
Net Attendance Ratio measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.
Ans. Literacy Rate measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7 and above age group.
Q.12. Arrange the following in the correct sequence :
(i) Delivering honey at honey collection centres.
(ii) Collecting honey from honeycombs
(iii) Starting beekeeping at a nearby place
(iv) Selling honey in the market
(a) (iii) – (ii) – (i) – (iv)
(b) (i) – (ii) – (iii) – (iv)
(c) (iv) – (ii) – (iii) – (i)
(d) (iii) – (i) – (ii) – (iv)
Q.13. Under employment in also known as ____________. (1 marks)
Ans. disguised unemployment.
The public sector helps in the development of a country as it invests in ___________ such as health, education, defence, etc.
Ans. Key and basic industries
Q.14 Read the information given below and select the correct option : (1 Mark)
As consumers in today's world, some of us have a wide choice of goods and services before us. The latest model of digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by the leading manufacturers of the world are within our reach. Every season, new models of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads.
It is possible due to:
(b) World Trade Organisation
15. __________ is an organisation whose aims to liberalise international trade. (1 Mark)
(a) World Bank
(b) World Trade Organisation
(c) International Monetary Fund
(d) United Nations Organisation
Q.16. Identify the correct statement with regard to ‘The Act of Union -1707’ from the following options. (1 Mark)
(a) The British monarchy surrendered the power to the English Parliament.
(b) The British parliament seized power from Ireland.
(c) The formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
(d) The British nation was formed as a result of a war with Scotland and Wales.
Ans. (c) The formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’
Q.17. “Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries found a way out by personifying a nation. In other words, they represented a country as if it were a person.” Support the statement with examples. (3 marks)
Ans. Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures also called political allegories, inspired by French artists who personified values like liberty, justice, equality and freedom. The French female allegory was called Marianne and represented the idea that France was the nation of its people. Germania, the allegory of Germany, wore a crown of Oak leaves which represented bravery and heroism. These allegories drew their characteristics from statues of liberty and freedom.
Write a short note on the condition of women during nationalist struggles. The condition of women during nationalist struggles can be described as
(1) Women were deprived of major rights like suffrage and were treated as minor sex. They were harassed and treated with no respect.
(2) In the Liberal Revolution, women participated in huge numbers, forming political associations, arranging political meetings and demonstrations. They even founded newspapers to put their opinions forward.
(3) They were still denied their suffrage rights and admitted as observers only in the Frankfurt Parliament.
Q.18. How were the leaders and freedom fighters able to develop a sense of collective belonging and nationalism in Indians during the freedom struggle? (3 marks)
Ans. The sense of collective belonging and feeling of nationalism was created amongst the Indians leaders and freedom fighters through the following means:
(1) The image of Bharat Mata: The image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 when he wrote ‘Vande Matram’ as a hymn to our motherland. Devotion to this mother figure came to be seen as evidence of one's nationalism.
(2) Revival of Indian folklore and folk tales: Indian folk songs and folk tales sung by bards played an important role in building the idea of nationalism. These tales and songs gave a true picture of traditional culture. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore collected ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement for folk revival. In Madras, Natesa Sastri’s collection of folk tales and songs led the movement for folk revival.
(3) The tricolour flag: During the Swadeshi Movement, a tricolour (red, green and yellow) flag was designed in Bengal. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Carrying the flag during the protest marches became a symbol of defiance.
(4) The spinning wheel: In 1921, Mahatma Gandhi designed the tricolour (red, green and white) Swaraj Flag. It had a spinning wheel in the centre-representing the Gandhian idea of self-help.
(5) Reinterpretation of history: Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through the reinterpretation of history. Nationalist writers urged readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and strive to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art, science, mathematics, architecture, religion, culture, law, crafts and trade flourished.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the Non-cooperation movement in 1922?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation movement in 1922 because of the following reasons:
(1) Gandhi felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be trained properly before they would be ready to take part in the mass struggle.
(2) Leaders within Congress were tired of mass struggle by now and wanted to enter council elections to argue for reforms and to oppose British policies within the councils.
(3) At Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, UP, a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police in which 22 policemen were burnt alive by agitated people. Hearing the incident, Gandhiji called-off the movement.
Q.19. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow: (3 marks)
Source A: Development of Resources
Equitable distribution of resources has become essential for sustained quality of life and global peace. If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues, the future of our planet is in danger. Therefore, resource planning is essential for the sustainable existence of all forms of life. Sustainable existence is a component of sustainable development.
Source B: Soil as a Resource
The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil. Various forces of nature such as a change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials
Source C: Land Degradation and Conservation Methods
At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. Approximately, 28% of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area, 56% of it is water eroded area and the rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits. Some human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying to have contributed significantly in land degradation.
Source A: Development of Resources
19.1 What is sustainable development?
Ans. Sustainable development means that the development must take place without damaging the environment or obstructing the development/progress of present or future generations.
Source B: Soil as a Resource
19.2 Why is soil considered an important resource?
Ans. Soil is considered an important resource because it supports life and is monumental for both plant and animal growth. It bears multiple minerals and resources.
Source C: Land Degradation and Conservation Methods
19.3 Suggest one method of conserving land from degradation?
Ans. Land degradation can be prevented by afforestation and controlled grazing. Planting of shelter beds and control on grazing of animals can protect the land from erosion and degradation.
Q.20. Why is power sharing desirable? List any three reasons. (3 marks)
Ans. Power sharing is very desirable in most democracies because:
(1) Reduces conflict among social groups: Power-sharing reduces the conflicts among different social groups in the country and helps them accommodate well in the same country. Take Belgium as an example. Its constitution was changed four times to enable everyone to live together within the same country.
(2) Ensure political stability: Power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order as conflicts often lead to violence and political instability.
(3) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy: Everyone can be easily included in the process of decision making through power-sharing.
Q.21. Democracy has not been successful in reducing economic inequalities. Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer. (3 marks)
Ans. Democracy has not been successful in reducing economic inequalities.
The reasons are:
(1) The wealth and means are accumulated in the hands of a few people and their share in the total income of the country has been increasing. Those who are rich continue to grow richer while those who are poor, have become even poorer.
(2) The people at the bottom of society find it difficult to meet even their basic needs, such as food, clothing, housing, education and health. Not only that, their incomes have been declining. With growing inflation, it is getting difficult for them to make ends meet but the government has not been able to do much to make it easier for them. The schemes which guarantee subsidies to the poor people do not reach them as efficiently as they are claimed to be.
(3) The poor constitute a large proportion of voters and no party would like to lose their votes. Yet democratically elected governments do not appear to be attentive to address the issue of poverty.
This is why democracy has not been very successful in reducing economic inequalities.
Q.22. How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Ans. Following are the ways in which democracy produces an accountable, responsive and legitimate government:
(1) Accountable government: The most basic outcome of a democracy is that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens and responsive to their needs and expectations. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should participate in the majority of the decisions that affect them all. Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation in negotiation. That is why some delay is bound to take place but its decisions are more acceptable and more effective than other forms of government.
(2) Responsive govern-ment: A democratic government is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and claims to be largely free of corruption. However, democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of the majority. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people.
(3) Legitimate government: A democratic government is the people’s own government. That is why there is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. They believe that democracy is best suited for their country. Thus, democracy’s ability to generate its own support in itself is a positive outcome.
Q.23. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow: (4 marks)
Each country develops a party system that is conditioned by its special circumstances. For example, if India has evolved a multi-party system, it is because the social and geographical diversity in such a large country is not easily absorbed by two or even three parties. No system is ideal for all countries and all situations.
It is often said that political parties are facing a crisis because they are very unpopular and the citizens are indifferent to political parties. The available evidence shows that this belief is only partly true for India.
23.1 What is a multi-party system?
Ans. Multi-party system is a political system where multiple parties are allowed to contest for elections and have fair chances at winning power in the same.
23.2 Why is it said that political parties are facing a crisis?
Ans. Political parties are facing unpopularity and lack of faith. They are losing their reputation and purpose because of rampant corruption and because of the increasing role of money and power in governance.
23.3 What are the major challenges faced by political parties?
Ans. Major challenges faced by political parties are lack of democracy within their functioning, the increasing role of money and muscle power, the challenge of dynastic succession, etc.
Q.24. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow: (4 marks)
You have studied the physical diversities and plurality of cultures in India. These are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping patterns in the country. Various types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and fruits, spices and condiments, etc. constitute some of the important crops grown in the country. India has three cropping seasons — rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
24.1 What are zaid Crops?
Ans. Zaid crops are grown in the short season during the summer months. Some examples are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetable and fodder crops.
24.2 Distinguish between Kharif and rabi crops with examples.
Q.25. Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non- Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmans had access to. The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from ` 102 crores to ` 57 crores. In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, the production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. How then could they boycott mill cloth for too long? Similarly, the boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British Ones. These were slow to come up. So students and teachers began trickling back to the government, schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
25.1 What was the purpose of the Justice Party to contest Elections to the Council in Madras?
Select the appropriate option : (1 Mark)
(a) It wanted to contest elections to the council as it was one of the ways to gain some Income that usually only Brahmans had access to.
(b) It wanted to contest elections to the council as it was one of the ways to gain some power that usually only Brahmans had access to.
(c) It wanted to contest elections to the council as it was one of the ways to gain more popularity that usually only Brahmans had access to.
(d) It wanted to contest elections to the council as it was one of the ways to take revenge from Brahmans.
25.2 How was the effects of ‘Non- Cooperation on the economic front’ dramatic? (1 Mark)
(a) Merchants refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
(b) The merchant’s imported goods from other countries.
(c) The neighbouring countries were offering the same goods at cheaper prices.
(d) Public was not interested in buying foreign goods.
25.3 The import of foreign cloth between 1921 and 1922 saw changes because : (1 Mark)
(a) Its value dropped from ` 100 crore to ` 97 crore
(b) Its value dropped from ` 201 crore to ` 150 crore
(c) Its value dropped from ` 102 crore to ` 57 crore
(d) Its value dropped from ` 102 crore to ` 75 crore
25.4 Thousands of ____________ left government controlled schools and colleges and _______ gave up their legal practices. (1 Mark)
(a) Teachers, Judges
(b) Headmasters, Clerks
(c) Students, Advocates
(d) Students, lawyers
Q.26. Read the source given below and answer the following questions:
The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.
The production and consumption of steel are often regarded as the index of a country’s development. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky, entailing heavy transportation costs. Iron ore, coking coal and limestone are required in the ratio of approximately 4: 2: 1. Some quantities of manganese are also required to harden the steel.
Where should the steel plants be ideally located? Remember that the finished products also need an efficient transport network for their distribution to the markets and consumers. In 2016 with 95.6 million tonnes of crude steel production, India ranked 3rd among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron. In 2016 per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 63 kg per annum against the world average of 208 kg.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
26.1 Which industry is called the basic industry of India? (1 Mark)
(a) Iron Industry
(b) Steel Industry
(c) Cement Industry
(d) Iron and Steel Industry
26.2 Index of a country is regarded on what basis?
Select the appropriate option : (1 Mark)
(a) Extraction and processing of steel.
(b) Production and consumption of steel.
(c) Production and manufacturing of steel.
(d) Consumption and manufacturing of steel.
26.3 Explain the process of manufacturing steel. Choose the correct option : (1 Mark)
(i) Pig iron
(ii) Blast furnace
(iii) Shaping metal
(a) (ii) - (i) - (iv) - (iii)
(b) (iii) - (i) - (iv) - (ii)
(c) (i) - (iv) - (ii) - (iii)
(d) (ii) - (iii) - (iv) - (i)
26.4 Manufacturing steel is not every person's business. Suppose you are working in the steel industry, what will be the proportion of Iron Ore, coking coal and limestone you would use to produce steel?
(a) 2 : 1 : 4
(b) 4 : 1 : 2
(c) 4 : 2 : 1
(d) 2 : 4 : 1
Q.27. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or language groups develop a sense of collective belonging in the nineteenth century India? Explain. (5 Mark)
(i) The identity of the nation is most often symbolised with the image of Bharat Mata.
(ii) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
(iii) Novel Anandamath.
(iv) Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Abindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata and portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
(v) Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
(vi) Icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism.
(vii) During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.
(viii) Reinterpretation of history to instill a sense of pride in the nation.
Explain the meaning and notion of ‘Swaraj’ as perceived by the plantation workers. How did they respond to the call of the Non-Cooperation Movement?
1. For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
2. (i) Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
(ii) When they heard of the Non- Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
(iii) They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
(iv) They, however, never reached their destination. Stranded on the way by a railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Q.28. Describe the role of mass communication in India. (5 Mark)
(i) Mass communication provides entertainment.
(ii) Creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.
(iii) All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages.
(iv) Doordarshan broadcasts programmes of entertainment, education, sports, etc. for people of different age groups.
(v) India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually.
(vi) Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects to create awareness among people in different parts of the country.
(vii) India produces short films; video feature films and video short films.
(viii) Mass media creates awareness among people on various socio- economic and political issues.
(ix) Any other relevant point.
Describe the benefits of Roadways.
(i) Roads need less capital than the railways.
(ii) Road transport provides door-to-door service.
(iii) The road transport provides flexible service to men and materials.
(iv) Road transport is useful in small distances.
(v) Road transport is helpful in production of perishable goods as it facilitates the distribution of perishable goods from point of production to point of consumption.
(vi) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas. Any other relevant point.
Q.29. Suggest and explain any five ways to reform Political Parties in India. (5 Mark)
Ans. (i) A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties. (ii) It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of its members.
(iii) It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets; about 1/3rd to its women candidates.
(iv) There should be a quota for women in the decision-making bodies of the party.
(v) There should be state funding of elections.
(vi) Vote casting should be made compulsory in each election.
(vii) Any other relevant point.
Q.30. ‘Power sharing is the essence of a democratic government.’ Examine the statement. (5 Mark)
Ans. (i) Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, also called as Horizontal Power Sharing. Example – India.
(ii) Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Example – India (Union Government & State Government).
(iii) Community government – Power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups. Example – Belgium.
(iv) Power-sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements – Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand.
(v) In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups.
Q.31. ‘Tertiary sector is playing a significant role in the development of Indian Economy.' Justify the statement. (5 Mark)
Ans. (i) Basic services: Services such as hospitals, educational institutions, post and telegraph services, transport, banks, insurance companies, are in this group.
(ii) Development of primary and secondary sector: The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, trade and storage.
(iii) Rise in income levels: As income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding many more services like eating out, tourism, shopping, private hospitals, private schools and professional training centres.
(iv) Rise in information technology: Over the past decade or so, certain new services, such as those based on information and communication technology, have become important and essential.
(v) Globalization: Due to globalization, people have become aware of new services and activities, and communication because of which the tertiary sector has gained importance.
‘Public sector contributes to the economic development of India.’ Justify the statement.
Ans. (i) It promotes rapid economic development through creation and expansion of infrastructure.
(ii) It creates employment opportunities.
(iii) It generates financial resources for development.
(iv) It is ensuring equality of income, wealth and thus, a balanced regional development.(v) It encourages development of small, medium and cottage industries.
(vi) It ensures easy availability of goods at moderate rates.
(vii) Contributes to community development, Human Development Index, i.e., health and educational services.
(viii) Any other relevant point.
Q.32. (i) Two places A and B have been marked on the given outline map of India.
Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(A) Indian National Congress session at this place in 1927 (1)
(B) Mahatma Gandhi organized a Satyagraha Movement at this place for indigo planters (1)
(ii) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any THREE of the following with suitable Symbols.
(a) Rana Pratap Sagar Dam
(b) Namrup Thermal Plant
(c) Bengaluru Software Technology Park
(d) Visakhapatnam Port
(e) Narora Nuclear Power Plant