Class - X
TIME: 3 Hrs.
Read the following instructions very carefully and strictly follow them :
1. The question paper comprises five sections - A, B, C, D and E. There are 32 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A - Question no. 1 to 16 are Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B - Question no. 17 to 22 are Short Answer Type Questions, carrying 3 marks each. The answer to each question should not exceed 80 words.
4. Section C - Question no. 23 to 26 are Source Based Questions, carrying 4 marks each.
5. Section D - Question no. 27 to 31 are Long Answer Type Questions, carrying 5 marks each. The answer to each question should not exceed 120 words.
6. Section E - Question no. 32 is Map-Based, carrying 5 marks with two parts, 32.1 from History (2 marks) and 32.2 from Geography (3 marks).
7. There is no overall choice in the question paper. However, an internal choice has been provided in a few questions. Only one of the choices in such questions has to be attempted.
8. In addition to this, separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.
Q.1. Mention one prudential reason why power sharing is desirable? (1 marks)
Ans. Power sharing is good for democracy because it reduces the possibilities of a social conflict.
Q.2. What is NTPC? (1 marks)
Ans. NTPC i.e. the National Thermal Power Corporation is a major power providing corporation in India. It preserves the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels where it sets up its power plants.
Mention one condition required for the growth of rice crop? (1 marks)
Ans. Rice requires high temperature and high humidity with an annual rainfall of 100 cm.
Q.3. The sacred institutions of different faiths (temple, church and mosque) at the corners of the picture of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, signify the symbols of unity, which were used by leaders to unify Indian citizens. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. The other options do not justify or explain the presence of most of the elements in the picture completely.
Which of the following aspects best signifies this image of Bal Gangadhar Tilak?
The sacred institutions of different faiths (temple, church and mosque) at the corners of the picture of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, signify the symbols of unity, which were used by leaders to unify Indian citizens. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism. The other options do not justify or explain the presence of most of the elements in the picture completely.
Q.4. The Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 was hosted by the Austrian statesman and chancellor Klemens Von Metternich (Duke Metternich). EU countries: Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria sent ambassadors to this Congress to undo most of the changes that had come about in Europe during Napoleon’s reign and the wars fought thereafter, and establish a new balance of power in Europe.
The Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 was hosted by the Austrian statesman and chancellor Klemens Von Metternich (Duke Metternich). EU countries: Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria sent ambassadors to this Congress to undo most of the changes that had come about in Europe during Napoleon’s reign and the wars fought thereafter, and establish a new balance of power in Europe.
Q.5. Money spent to buy assets such as land, labour, infrastructure and equipment is called investment. It can come from both foreign companies and bigger regional or national companies.
Money spent to buy assets such as land, labour, infrastructure and equipment is called investment. It can come from both foreign companies and bigger regional or national companies.
(a) Farmers decide to grow arhar and chickpea (pulse crops)
(b) Products are sold in the market.
(c) A dal mill is set up to procure and process.
(d) Farmers take a loan from local banks to buy inputs.
Q.7. At present, a total of __________ countries are members of the World Trade Organisation. (1 marks)
World Trade Organisation (WTO) is an organisation whose aim is to liberalise international trade.
Started at the initiative of developed countries, WTO establishes rules regarding international trade and ensures that these rules are obeyed. As of now, 164 countries are members of WTO and have vowed to obey rules laid down.
Q.8. __________ is an example of non-renewable resources. (1 marks)
Ans. Crude oil
Crude oil extracted from Earth is used to make multiple energy resources like petroleum products. It takes millions of years to form these reserves.
Q.9. __________ is a developmental goal for an urban unemployed youth.
Ans. Employment opportunity with job security
Any unemployed youth will only want to have a job opportunity corresponding to higher qualifications with a good salary as his/her most sought after developmental goal.
Q.10. In World Development Reports, the World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion in classifying countries. In 2017, countries with a per capita income of US $12,056 per annum and above were called rich countries and those with a per capita income of US $955 or less were called low-income countries.
In World Development Reports, the World Bank uses per capita income as the criterion in classifying countries. In 2017, countries with a per capita income of US $12,056 per annum and above were called rich countries and those with a per capita income of US $955 or less were called low-income countries.
Q.11. Joint production of companies - both national or international - helps the smaller company to expand its infrastructure, incorporate state-of-the-art technology in its production. The same help the investing company to expand its outreach, control production and attract foreign markets.
Assertion (A): When multinational corporations (MNCs) set up a production jointly with a local company, it is mutually beneficial to both companies.
Reason (R): The benefit of such a joint production is two-fold. First, MNCs can provide money for additional investments, like buying new machines for faster production. Second, MNCs might equip with them the latest technology for production. The same is beneficial for the MNCs as well. MNCs gain control over production and are able to expand their assets and gain profits from other markets also.
Joint production of companies - both national or international - helps the smaller company to expand its infrastructure, incorporate state-of-the-art technology in its production. The same help the investing company to expand its outreach, control production and attract foreign markets.
Q.12. Double coincidence of wants is an essential feature of ___________ (1 marks)
Ans. Barter system
Explanation: The barter system is a system where goods are directly exchanged with the buyer without any use of money; the double coincidence of wants is an essential feature of this system. Double coincidence of wants can be defined as a concept where what a person desires to sell is exactly what the other wishes to buy. The introduction of money has solved the problem of double coincidence of wants. Now, the sellers and the buyers do not have to look for each other to exchange their products.
Q.13. What do you mean by coming together federations? (1 marks)
Ans. Coming together federation is a nation/system where independent states come together by pooling sovereignty to form a bigger unit/ system. Their identity is retained.
Q.14. Which country passed an act in 1956 recognising Sinhalese? (1 marks)
Ans. Sri Lanka passed an act in 1956 recognising Sinhalese.
Q.15. Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer, helped Jawaharlal Nehru to set up Oudh (now Awadh) Kisan Sabha and led the movement during the Non-cooperation movement.
Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labourer, helped Jawaharlal Nehru to set up Oudh (now Awadh) Kisan Sabha and led the movement during the Non-cooperation movement.
Q.16. ___________ and the pressure of competition have substantially changed the lives of workers. (1 Mark)
Q.17. Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s. (3 Mark)
Ans. Economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s are:
(a) The first half of the 19th century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(b) Job-seekers were more and employment opportunities were less.
(c) People from rural areas migrated to cities and made cities over-crowded slums.
(d) Small producers often faced stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods.
(e) Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
Q.18. How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in the many European States after 1815? Explain with examples. (3 Mark)
Ans. (i) After 1815, many liberal nationalists went underground for the fear of repression. Secret societies emerged in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Giuseppe Mazzi- ni, an Italian revolutionary, founded two underground societies—first Young Italy in Marseilles and second Young Europe in Berne. Following the footsteps of Mazzini, many secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(ii) Romanticism was a cultural movement that sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The romantics used folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularize the true spirit of the nation. For example, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music in Poland. He turned folk dances like polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
(iii) Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. For example, it was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance when the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland.
Q.19. How could Non- cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion. (3 Mark)
Ans. Non- Cooperation became a movement:
(i) It was the view of Gandhiji that the British rule was set in India with the cooperation of Indians.
(ii) If Indians refused cooperation, British rule in India would collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.
(iii) Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stages.
(iv) In case the government used repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
(v) Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured extensively, mobilising popular support of the movement.
(vi) It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
Mention any three features of arid soils. (3 Mark)
Ans. (i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
(ii) They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
(iii) Due to the dry climate and high temperature, the evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
(iv) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing flow of calcium content downwards.
Q.20. “Some people think that democracy produces less efficient government”. Give reasons. (3 Mark)
Ans. It is true some people think that democracy produces a less effective government because :
(i) Non- democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about majorities and public opinion.
(ii) They can be very quick and efficient in decision making and implementation.
(iii) But democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place.
(iv) Most democracies fall short of elections that provide a fair chance to everyone.
(v) Democratic governments do not have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens.
(vi) Democracies often frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of their population.
Q.21. What are the differences in the employment conditions between the organised and unorganised sectors of the economy? (3 Mark)
Ans. Service conditions of Organised and Unorganized Sectors :
(i) Organised sector is registered by the government whereas, the unorganized sector is largely outside the control of the government.
(ii) In the organised sector, the workers enjoy the security of employment, whereas, in the unorganized sector, jobs are insecure, low paid and irregular.
(iii) In the organised sector, the number of working hours are fixed, whereas, in the unorganized sector, the number of working hours are not fixed.
(iv) In the organised sector, workers get several benefits such as paid leaves, payment during holidays, provident fund, etc., whereas, in the unorganized sector, such facilities are not available.
(v) Any other relevant point.
Q.22. “For development, people look at a mix of goals”. Support the statement with three suitable examples. (3 Mark)
“Money cannot buy all the goods and services that a person may need to live well”. Explain the statement with suitable examples.
Ans. It is true that for development, people look at a mix of goals, e.g.:
(i) If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases. So, dignity is an important goal.
(ii) However, it is also the case that if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and greater acceptance of women working outside.
(iii) A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business. These are goals other than income. Hence, the development goal is not only for better income but also for other important things in life.
Q.23. Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow : (4 Mark)
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family – should be preserved. Most conservatives, however, did not propose a return to the society of pre-revolutionary days. Rather, they realised, from the changes initiated by Napoleon, that modernisation could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy. It could make the state's power more effective and stronger. A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe. In 1815, representatives of the European powers who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. The Congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The delegates drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty, which had been deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power, and France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.24. Read the text given below and answer the following questions. (4 Mark)
Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. Industrial development is a precondition for the eradication of unemployment and poverty in our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas. Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange. Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of a higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible. Agriculture and industry are not exclusive to each other. They move hand in hand. For instance, the agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option
Choose the correct option :
Q.25. Read the given extract and answer the following questions. (4 Mark)
In a democracy, we are most concerned with ensuring that people will have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision making, that affects them all.
Therefore, the most basic outcome of democracy should be that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens. Some people think that democracy produces less effective government. It is, of course, true that non-democratic rulers are very quick and efficient in decision making and implementation, whereas, democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place. But, because it has followed procedures, its decisions may be both more acceptable to the people and more effective. Moreover, when citizens want to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures, they can find this out. They have the right and the means to examine the process of decision making.
This is known as transparency. This factor is often missing from a non-democratic government. There is another aspect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: a democratic government is a legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive, or clean. But a democratic government is the people’s own government.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.26. Read the source given below and answer the following questions. (4 Mark)
Ford Motors, an American company, is one of the world’s largest automobile manufacturers with production spread over 26 countries of the world. Ford Motors came to India in 1995 and spent ` 1700 crore to set up a large plant near Chennai. This was done in collaboration with Mahindra and Mahindra, a major Indian manufacturer of jeeps and trucks. By the year 2004, Ford Motors was selling 27,000 cars in the Indian markets, while 24,000 cars were exported from India to South Africa, Mexico and Brazil. The company wanted to develop Ford India as a component supplying a base for its other plants across the globe.
Answer the following MCQs by choosing the most appropriate option.
Q.27. Assess democracy as a form of government based on its outcomes in various fields. (5 marks)
Ans. Following are the points based on which we can assess democracy and its outcomes in various fields:
(1) Democracies are expected to produce good governments and help their citizens to develop economically culturally and socially. However, this development is not guaranteed. Democratic counties like South Africa and Brazil have huge income inequalities and less economic growth.
(2) One of its functions depends on its tendency and efforts to reduce economic disparities. However, it is a bitter truth that even when a country achieves economic growth, wealth is not distributed in such a way that all citizens of the country will have an approximately equal share and lead a better life.
(3) Democracies have also failed on the issue of poverty reduction. A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes.
(4) Democracies might frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a minority over the majority of its population but it helps in strengthening the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and opportunity.
(5) Democracy stands superior to other forms of government as it promotes dignity, freedom and equality before the law of each individual.
(6) Democracies are believed to accommodate social diversities and develop their own fair form of competition in reducing conflicts from being violent or explosive. Thus democracies appear to be a good alternative to other forms of government in a few ways, while unfit in some others. However, if conducted well and executed in the right manner, it can prove to be a very successful and very popular form of government.
Q.28. Describe any five conditions or aspects that you would consider before accepting a job in a distant place. (5 marks)
Ans. If I get a job in a distant place, before accepting it, I would try to consider many factors, apart from income such as:
(1) Facilities for the family: I would have to check if there is a good educational facility for children, a good house and localities to stay in. Sufficient medical facilities should also be available.
(2) Jobs security: I should have clear terms of employment in my appointment letter. A job that gives high pay but no job security will reduce my sense of security and freedom and will affect my decision.
(3) Opportunity to learn: There should be an opportunity for personal career growth so that no boredom or stagnation sets in.
(4) Working atmosphere: There should be good team spirit and the seniors should look after newcomers and guide them. For women, the environment should be safe and discrimination-free. If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases. A safe and secure environment may allow more women to take up jobs or run a business.
(5) Time for the family: Working hours should be fixed and adhered to so that there is time for spending with family. Appropriate leave provision must be there as well.
Q.29. Write a short note on the various kinds of roads in India. (5 marks)
Ans. Various kinds of roads found in India are:
(1) Golden Quadrilateral superhighways: The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi and six-lane superhighways. The North-South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) and EastWest corridor linking Silchar (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat) are part of this project.
(2) National highways: National highways link extreme parts of the country. These are primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). The historical Sher Shah Suri Marg called National Highway 1, which connects Delhi and Amritsar is an example.
(3) State highways: Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as state highways. State highways are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD).
(4) District roads: Roads that connect district headquarters with other places of the district are called district roads. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
(5) Rural roads: Roads that link rural areas and villages with towns are classified as rural roads. Under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana scheme, special provisions are made so that every village in the country is linked to a major town in the country by an all-season motorable road.
(6) Border roads: Strategically important roads in the bordering areas of the country are called border roads. Border Roads Organisation (BRO), a government of India undertaking, constructs and maintains border roads. This organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.
Differentiate between subsistence and commercial agriculture.
1. Crops are cultivated for sustenance, not for profit or trade.
1. Crops are cultivated for sale in the market.
2. Crop specialisation is not followed
2. Crop specialisation is followed
3. Practise in developing countries such as India.
3. Practise in developed countries such as the USA and Australia
4. Farm size is small.
4. Farm size is larger.
5. Farm work is mainly done by hands and usually, only family members are involved in the work.
5. Machines are used in farming. Technology dominates all farming processes.
Q.30. Analyse the role of manufacturing industries in the economic development of a country. (5 marks)
Ans. Manufacturing industries play a very important role in the economic development of a country. This can be understood from the points given below:
(1) Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of the Indian economy.
(2) Manufacturing industries also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(3) Industrial development reduces unemployment and poverty and small investments are guaranteed with this development. This in turn increases the number of jobs for skilled and semi-skilled labours.
(4) It also brings down regional disparities.
(5) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in foreign exchange.
(6) The industrial sector contributes 27% of GDP and manufacturing contributes 17% of GDP.
Q.31. Give a brief description of Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution to the Indian freedom struggle. (5 marks)
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pioneer freedom fighters of India who helped our country finally attain independence from the colonial British Government. Gandhi returned to India from Africa in January 1915. His contribution to the Indian freedom struggle can be traced to the following points:
(1) In 1916, he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
(2) In 1917, he organised a satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a Satyagraha Movement amongst cotton mill workers.
(3) In 1919, he decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
(4) To unite Hindus and Muslims, Gandhi started the Non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
(5) In 1930, Gandhi started his famous Salt March (Dandi March), accompanied by 78 followers, from his ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. On 6th April, he reached Dandi, and openly violated the law and manufactured salt by boiling seawater.
(6) In September 1932, he signed Poona Pact with B. R. Ambedkar which gave Dalits reserved seats in legislative councils.
(7) 1n August 1942, Gandhi started the Quit India Movement and gave the slogan of ‘Do or Die and finally got India free on 15th August 1947.
Q.32. (i) Two places (A) and (B) are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
(A) The city associated with the Jallianwala Bagh incident. (1 Mark)
(B) The place where Gandhiji violated the Salt Law. (1 Mark)
(ii) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any three of the following with appropriate symbols:
(a) Salal: Dam
(b) Mumbai: Cotton Textile Industry
(c) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose: International Airport
(d) Ramagundam: Thermal Power Plant
(e) Visakhapatnam: Major Seaport (3 Mark)
Ans. (i) & (ii)