Ques 1: What are fossils?
Ans: The remains of the dead plants and animals trapped in the layer of rocks are known as fossils.
Ques 2: Who was Abul Fazi?
Ans: Abul Fazl was Akbar's friend and counsellor. He wrote the books Akbar Nama and Ain-i Akbari.
Ques 3: What do you mean by tributaries?
Ans: Tributaries are small rivers that join the main river. For example Son, Yamuna are the tributaries of Ganga.
Ques 4: What is 'abhang'?
Ans: It is a Marathi devotional hymn.
Ques 5: Which day of the year is celebrated as water day?
Ans: 22 March.
Ques 6: Who represent our problems in the Parliament House?
Ans: Our elected representatives, represent our problem in the Parliament House.
Ques 7: What are the demerits of airways as a means of transport?
Ans: (i) The most expensive means of transport among all.
(ii) Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather very often.
(iii) In case of any casualty, the risk of life and materials are almost hundred percent.
Ques 8: What is Tsunami? Explain its effect.
Ans: Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning 'harbour waves' as the harbours get destroyed whenever there is tsunami. An earthquake, volcanic eruption or underwater landslide might trigger huge ocean waves called tsunami.
(i) These waves travel at a speed of 700 km per hour and cause damage to the coastal areas.
(ii) The areas near the coast get submerged and it leads to earthquake
Ques 9: Explain the circulation of air in the atmosphere.
Ans: Process of circulation of air:
(i) When air is heated it expands, becomes light and rises up.
(ii) Cold air is dense so, it sinks down.
(iii) When hot air rises up, cold air from surrounding areas fill in the gap.
Ques 10: How does the Tamil Nadu government help the cooperatives?
Ans: (i) The Tamil Nadu government runs a Free School Uniform programme in the state
(ii) The government procures the cloth for this programme from the powerloom weaver's cooperatives.
(iii) Similarly, the government buys cloth from the handloom weaver's cooperatives and sells it through stores known as Co-optex.
Ques 11: What does our Constitution tell about gender discrimination?
Ans: (i) Our Constitution says that there should be no discrimination on the basis of gender.
(ii) In reality, inequality between the sexes exists.
(iii) The government recognises that burden of childcare and housework falls on women and girls.
(iv) This naturally has an impact on the girls attending the school.
Ques 12: Give reasons:
(i) The Prairies are known as the 'Granaries of the World'.
(ii) Rise of wool industry in the Velds.
Ans: (i) The Prairies are known as the 'Granaries of the World' because of the huge surplus of wheat production.
(ii) Sheep rearing is the most important occupation in the Velds. Marino sheep is a popular species and their wool is very warm. People of this region are mostly engaged in this activity. This has given rise to wool industry there.
Ques 13: What is "Sulh-i-kul' or "Universal peace??
Ans: The idea of ?Sulh-i-kul? was introduced by Akbar, the Great. This idea of Sulh-i-kul was based on the idea of tolerance which did not discriminate between the people of different religions in his realm.
Ques 14: Write in brief the election procedure of the MLA.
Ans: Every state has a Legislative Assembly. Each state is divided into constituencies. For example, Himachal Pradesh is divided into 68 constituencies, from each constituency one representative is elected by the people who then becomes an MLA. Candidates belong to different political parties or may be independent.
Ques 15: Why did the Delhi Sultans build mosques all over the subcontinent?
Ans: Delhi Sultans built various mosques in different cities. They wanted to project themselves as protectors of Islam and Muslims. Mosques helped in creating a sense of community sharing/ common belief and code of conduct. It was important as the Muslims came from variety of backgrounds.
Ques 16: Who established a stable Maratha kingdom and how?
Ans: (i) Maratha kingdom developed after a struggle with the Mughal Empire.
(ii) Shivaji carved out a stable kingdom with the support of powerful warrior families of Deshmukhs and highly mobile peasant pastoralists Kunbis.
(iii) He used them to challenge Mughal power in Deccan.
(iv) Marathas collected huge revenue in the entire kingdom and the money we used to make their power strong.
Ques 17: Fill in the blanks:
(i) The domain of water is referred to as _______
(ii) Human beings interact with the ____ and modify it according to their need.
(iii) ____ is a trade in which goods are exchanged without the use of -money.
(iv) ____ revolution has made communication easy and speedy.
Ans: (i) hydrosphere
(iii) barter system
Ques 18: What are the main occupations of people in Sahara desert?
Ans: People in Sahara desert practice different activities:
(i) The nomadic tribes Bedouins and Tuaregs are rearing livestock such as goats, sheep, camels and horses. These animals provide them raw material to make leather for belts/ slippers, water bottles; hair is used for mats, carpets, clothes and blankets.
(ii) Cultivation is common near the oasis. Date palm and crops such as rice, wheat, barley and beans are grown. Egyptian cotton, famous worldwide is grown in Egypt.
(iii) The discovery of oil has changed the economic situation and many professions related to this are practised.
(iv) Trade is an important occupation.
Tribes like Tuaregs are becoming guides to foreign tourists and finding jobs in oil and gas operations.
Ques 19: How did tribal society change after being organised into a state?
Ans: The emergences of large states changed the nature of tribal societies. This could be explained with the help of two examples - the Gond society and the Ahom society.
(i) The Gond Society: Their basically equal society gradually got divided into unequal social classes. Brahmanas received land grants from the Gond rajas and became more influential. The Gond chiefs now wished to be recognised as Rajputs. So, Aman Das, the Gond raja of Garh Katanga assumed the title of 'Sangram Shah.
(ii) The Ahom Society: The Ahom built a large state which brought many changes in Ahom society. The influence of Brahmanas increased. Temples and Brahmanas were granted lands by the kings. In the reign of Sib Singh, Hinduism became the predominant religion. But the Ahom kings did not completely give up their traditional beliefs after adopting Hinduism.
Ques 20: (i) Coniferous forests are also known as:
(D) None of these
Ques 21: (ii) Largest snake found in tropical rainforest is:
(B) Black cobra
(C) Two mouth snake
(D) None of these
Ques 22: (iii) Meaning of Taiga in Russian language is:
Ques 23: (iv) Pampas are found in:
(A) East Africa
Ques 24: What changes have been made by government of Kerala to improve health care facilities?
Ans: (i) In 1996, Kerala government brought some changes in its health care system.
(ii) 40% of the state budget has been given to the panchayats. This made possible for a village to plan for safe drinking water, food, healthcare for women and education.
(iii) Water supplies, working of schools, and anganwadis were all ensured and specific problems of the village could be taken care off.
(iv) All this helped to improve the sanitation.
(v) Some problems like shortage of doctors, medicines, beds etc. are still there but the situation has improved in terms of health of people.
Ques 25: What were the major ideas expressed by Kabir? How did he express these?
Ans: The major ideas expressed by Kabir, include:
(i) Rejection of major religious traditions.
(ii) Criticism of all forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam
(iii) Criticism of priestly classes and caste system.
(iv) Belief in a formless Supreme God.
(v) Emphasis on Bhakti or Devotion to achieve salvation.
Kabir expressed his ideas in a vast collection of verses known as sakhis and pads. The language of his poetry was a form of spoken Hindi widely understood by ordinary people. These are said to have been composed by him and sung by wandering bhajan singers.
Ques 26: What are the various ways women's apply to fight discrimination and seek justice?
Ans: The various ways women apply to fight discrimination and seek justice are :
(a) It is an important part of the Women's Movement. Campaigns have led to new laws being passed in 2006 to give legal protection to those women who face physical and mental violence within their homes, also called domestic violence.
(b) The efforts made by the Women's Movement led the Supreme Court to formulate guidelines in 1997 to protect women against sexual harassment at the workplace and within educational institutions.
(c) In the 1980s/ for example, women's groups across the country also campaigned for bringing justice to those families which have become prey to dowry deaths. Finally, this became a public issue in the newspapers and society, and the dowry laws were changed to punish families who seek dowry.
(ii) Raising Awareness: Women, in order to fight against discrimination, work hard to raise public awareness on women's right issues. They do so through several means such as street plays, songs and public meetings.
(iii) Protesting: When a law or policy acts against the interests of the women, the movement raises its voice by holding public rallies and demonstrations. These are the powerful way of drawing attention to injustices.
(iv) Showing Solidarity: The Women's Movement is also about showing solidarity with other women and causes.
Ques 27: Describe the ways by which mass media makes money.
Ans: There are many ways through which mass media makes money:
(i) Advertisements are the major way to make money. Different products like soaps, cars, clothes, creams etc. are advertised to attract consumers.
(ii) Advertisements are repeated during telecast of movies, serials and matches.
(iii) The money earned depends upon the popularity of the programme and number of times the advertisement is repeated.
(iv) Another way is by doing promotional activities and making their presence felt so that large number of people see their channels or buy magazines or newspapers.
(v) Newspapers have print advertisement in various categories along with worthy information under the categories like buy or sell, about buy or rent and also obituaries.
Ques 28: A. On the political map of South America draw the equator and mark Venezuela.
B. On the outline map of India mark Malwa Deogir and Kanauj.
Ans: A. Physical of south America marked with only Equator and Venezuela.