Ques 1: What is ginning mill?
Ans: A factory where seeds are removed from cotton bolls and cotton is pressed into bales to be sent for spinning into thread, is termed as ginning mill.
Ques 2: Who wrote Kitab-al-Hind?
Ans: A great Arab poet Al-Baruni wrote Kitab-al-Hind.
Ques 3: What do you mean by a constituency?
Ans: A particular area from where all the voters living there choose their representatives is known as a constituency.
Ques 4: Who was the first Mughal Emperor?
Ques 5: What does RMP means?
Ans: Registered Medical Practitioner.
Ques 6:What is Garbhagriha?
Ans: Garbhagriha is the main shrine of the temple.
Ques 7: Why are flood plains very fertile?
Ans: Flood plains are formed by the deposition of fine soil and other materials called sediments along the river banks. As the soil and sediments are brought by flood water and contain a lot of minerals, dead remains of plants and micro-organisms, they are very fertile.
Ques 8: State True or False:
(a) All Indians are equal before law.
(b) Tawa river joins river Mahanadi in Hoshangabad
(c) In 1994 the government gave the right for fishing in Tawa reservoir to locals.
Ans: (a) True
Ques 9: Enlist any three teachings of Islam.
Ans: Islam propagated strict monotheism or submission to one God:
(i) It rejected idol worship.
(ii) It simplified the rituals of worship into collective prayers.
(iii) They developed holy law Shariat
Ques 10: Who were Pesewas, Deshmukhs and Kunbis?
Ans: Peshwas were the principal ministers who served as successors of Shivaji. They were the Chitpavan Brahmanas. Deshmukhs were the powerful warrior families and the Kunbis were the peasant pastoralists who were the backbones of Maratha Army.
Ques 11: How do we find advertisements everywhere?
Ans: (i) Today we are surrounded by advertisements everywhere like on television, listen to them on radio, see them on the streets and in newspapers and magazines.
(ii) Taxis and rickshaws carry advertisements on them.
(iii) When we go to cinemas, advertisements are shown before the film begins and on the internet, they often pop-up on visiting different websites.
Ques 12: Write a short note on the climate of the Amazon Basin.
Ans: (i) The Amazon Basin is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year. It rains almost every day, that too without much warning.
(ii) The day temperatures are high with very high humidity.
(iii) At night the temperature goes down but the humidity remains high.
Ques 13: What is meant by the "internal" and "external" frontiers of the Sultanate?
Ans: Internal frontiers mean to the hinterlands i.e. lands adjacent to a city that supply it with goods and services. Here, it refers to Ganga-Yamuna doab. An external frontier refers to unconquered territories i.e. southern parts of the subcontinent, Bengal and Gujarat.
Ques 14: How was the administration of Ahom state organised?
Ans: The Ahom state depended upon forced labour. Those, forced to work for the state, were called paiks. A census of the population was taken. Each village had to send a number of paiks by rotation. People from densely populated areas were shifted to less populated areas. Ahom clans thus broke up. By the first half of the seventeenth century, the administration became quite centralised.
Ques 15: How do you think stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women's right to equality?
Ans: Women are considered inferior to men. There is a belief that women do not have technical mind and therefore they cannot be engineers or scientists. It is thought that women are good at only certain jobs such as teaching and nursing. These stereotypes about women's capability or incapability of doing certain jobs badly affect women's right to equality. It is due to this reason that women are paid less wages than their male counter-parts.
Ques 16: How are spring and neap tides formed?
Ans: (i) During the full moon and new moon days, the sun, the moon and the earth are in the same line and the tides are highest. These tides are called spring tides.
(ii) When the moon is in its first and last quarter, the ocean waters get drawn in diagonally opposite directions by the gravitational pull of sun and earth, resulting in low tides. These tides are called neap tides
Ques 17: Fill in the blanks:
(a) The Rajarajeshvara temple was built in _____.
(b) Ajmer is associated with the Sufi saint ______.
(c) Hampi was the capital of the _____.
(d) The Dutch established a settlement at ______ in Andhra Pradesh.
Ans: (a) Thanjavur
(b) Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti
(c) Vijay Nagar Empire
Ques 18: What are the different ways of buying and selling goods?
Ans: (i) There are different market places where people buy and sell a variety of goods and services.
(ii) All these markets are in a specific locality.
(iii) They work in a particular manner and time.
(iv) These days, it is not always necessary to go to market to purchase goods.
(v) Orders can be placed for a variety of things through phone and internet.
(vi) Goods are delivered at the customer's home.
(vii) In clinics and nursing homes, sales representatives come to take order for supplying medicines.
(viii) Sales representatives are also engaged in the selling of goods. Thus, buying and selling of goods takes place in different ways.
Ques 19: Describe the issues of equality in other democracies,
Ans: Issues of Equality in Other Democracies:
(i) India is not the only democratic country in which there is inequality and in which the struggle for equality continues to exist.
(ii) In most democratic countries around the world, the issue of equality continues to be the key issue around which communities struggle. In USA, the African-American brought as slaves from Africa continue to be largely unequal. This is despite a movement in the late 1950s to push for equal rights for African-American. Prior to this, African-American were treated extremely unequally in the United States. They were denied equality through law.
Ques 20: (i) Which is NOT a means of communication?
Ques 21: (ii) Which type of road is constructed under the ground?
(A) fly over
Ques 22: (iii) Which mode of transport is most suitable to reach an island?
Ques 23: (iv) Which vehicle does not pollute the environment?
Ques 24: What do you know about Rajput tradition of heroism? Write in brief.
Ans: Rajputs are closely associated with the culture of Rajasthan. These cultural traditions were closely linked with the ideals and aspirations of rulers. Rajasthan was ruled by various Rajput families. The name of Prithviraj is worth mentioning, because he was one of the ablest Rajput ruler. These rulers cherished the ideal of the hero who fought valiantly, often choosing death on the battlefield rather than face defeat. Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by specially trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of heroes and were expected to inspire others to follow their example. Ordinary people were also attracted by these stories which often depicted dramatic situations, and a range of strong emotions - loyalty, friendship, love, valour, and anger.
Ques 25: How have human beings adapted to the environment to fulfil their needs?
Ans: From the early times human beings have been interacting with the environment and they modified it according to their needs. Early humans adapted themselves to the natural surroundings. They led a simple life and fulfilled their needs from the nature around them. But their needs kept on increasing. They became varied also. For fulfilling their needs, human beings learnt new ways to change the environment. They learnt to grow crops, domesticate animals and led a settled life. The wheel was invented. Surplus food was produced. Barter system emerged. Transportation became faster, trade started, commerce developed and information revolution made communication easier and speedy across the world. Industrial revolution made possible and large scale production started. In the present environment, mind-boggling variety of clothes, games, food items are purchased. In this way, human beings adapted to the environment in order to fulfil their needs.
Ques 26: What does the term 'pan-regional' empire mean?
Ans: Pan-regional rule applies to the trends of extending the empire to the region beyond one's own state. Many regional states were emerged along with the decline of Mughal Empire in the eighteenth century. Across most of the subcontinent the regions were left with the legacies of the big and small states that had ruled over them. Due to this, chances of sharing different traditions in the realms of governance, economy, elite cultures and language were brightened. Through the thousand years between 700 and 1750, the character of the different regions did not grow in isolation. People learnt a lot of new things, manners, etc., without losing their own culture and identity.
Ques 27: Why do most newspapers still fail in providing a balanced story?
Ans: Most newspapers still fail in providing a balanced story:
(i) Researchers in the field of media have said that this happens because business houses control the media. So, it is in the interest of these business houses that only one side of the story is focused.
(ii) Media's continual need for money and its links to advertising means that it becomes difficult for media to report against people who give them advertisements. Media is, thus, no longer considered independent because of its close links to business.
(iii) Apart from this, the media also tends to focus on a particular aspect of a story because they believe this makes the story interesting. Also, if they want to increase public support for an issue, they often do this by focusing on one side of a story.
Ques 28: Draw a labeled diagram of water cycle.