Ques 1: Which place is known as "Granaries of the world"?
Ans: The Prairies.
Ques 2: In which part of the world is temperate grassland found?
Ans: Temperate grasslands are found in the mid-latitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents.
Ques 3: In which state the mid-day meal was first introduced?
Ques 4: What do you mean by the term 'double burden??
Ans: Several women today work both inside and outside the home. This is often referred to as double burden'.
Ques 5: Who is a 'Retailer'?
Ans: Retailer is the trader who sells goods or things to consumers.
Ques 6: What do you mean by Manuscripts?
Ans: Hand written account.
Ques 7: How do advertisements attract our attention?
Ans: (i) Advertisements attract the attention of consumer to the various products.
(ii) Products are displayed in multi-colours and with catchy slogans or tag lines.
(iii) The products are displayed positively so that people get interested.
Ques 8: Give one merit and demerit of waterways.
Ans: Merits: Waterways are the cheapest means of carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.
Demerits: Waterways are not available everywhere since it requires either sea, oceans, big rivers or big lakes.
Ques 9: Why cannot we go to the centre of the earth?
Ans: We cannot go to the centre of the earth because it has very high temperature and pressure. We will have to dig a hole 6,000 km deep on the ocean floor, which is not possible.
Ques 10: Fill in the blanks:
(a) Chera kingdom was established in the ____ century.
(b) Bengali language was derived from ____.
(c) Xuan Zang was a ____ traveller.
Ans: (a) ninth
Ques 11: Mention in brief the administrative system of the Gonds.
Ans: (i) The administrative system of the Gonds kingdom was centralized.
(ii) The kingdom was divided into garhs. Each garh was controlled by a particular Gond clan.
(iii) This was again divided into units of 84 villages called chaurasi. The chaurasi was subdivided into barhots which were made up of 12 villages each.
Ques 12: State True or False:
(a) Rural areas have a wide range of medical facilities.
(b) Hepatitis is a water borne disease.
(c) In private health services, doctors do not prescribe unnecessary medicines, injections or saline bottles.
Ans: (a) False
Ques 13: What was the uses of money collected from taxes?
Ans: (i) This money was used to finance the king's establishment.
(ii) For the construction of temples and forts.
(iii) Also used to fight wars, which were in turn expected to lead to the acquisition in the form of plunder and access to land as well as trade route.
Ques 14: In what ways have the human beings modified the environment?
Ans: The human beings have modified the environment according to their needs. With the passage of time, they learnt to grow crops, domesticated animals and started leading a settled life. The invention of wheel, productivity, barter system, transportation-all these factors helped in bringing out a revolutionary change in the life of human beings.
Ques 15: Why are the rainforests depleting?
Ans: The rainforests are depleting because of the developmental activities that are going on at fast speed. The biologically diverse rainforests are being destroyed day by day. It is estimated that a large area of rainforests has been disappearing annually in the Amazon basin. As a result, the top soil is washed away when the rain falls and the lush green forest turns into a barren landscape.
Ques 16: What is the difference between the work that MLAs do in the Assembly and the work done by government departments?
Ans: The difference between the work that MLAs do in the Assembly and the work done by government departments is that every department is headed by a minister who is also an MLA. The minister approves any work done or proposed by the department. The department is responsible for the projections and completion of the work where MLAs or ministers coordinate between the Assembly and the department.
Ques 17: (i) Which water is salty:
(A) River's water
(B) Pond water
(C) Sea water
Ans: Sea water
Ques 18: (ii) Which day of the year is celebrated as water day?
(A) 22 January
(B) 15 March
(C) 15 August
(D) 22 March
Ans: 22 March
Ques 19: (iii) The cold currents originate near the:
(B) Tropic of Cancer
(D) Tropic of Capricorn
Ques 20: (iv) Which is the Japanese word which means 'Harbour Waves'?
(B) Sea waves
(C) Ocean weaves
(D) None of these
Ans: Sea waves
Ques 21: Why do the children from Dalit and Adivasi community leave school?
Ans: There are several reasons for, why children from Dalit/ Adivasi and Muslim communities leave school. They are as follows:
(i) Many children leave schools because they are discriminated against by their teachers and classmates.
(ii) Schools are not close to people's homes, and hardly any transport is available so the parents may not be willing to send their children to far off places.
(iii) Many families are poor and unable to bear the cost of educating all their children.
(iv) In many parts of the country, especially in rural and poor areas/ there are no proper schools and teachers who can teach on a regular basis.
Ques 22: Write about the location of Sahara desert.
Ans: Sahara desert is the largest desert of the world located in North Africa. It has an area of around 8.54 million sq. km. The Sahara desert touches eleven countries. These are Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia and Western Sahara. Sahara desert is covered with the vast stretches of sands, gravel plains and elevated plateaus with bare rocky surface. These rocky surfaces may be more than 2500 m high at some places.
Ques 23: Temples were constructed in large numbers in Bengal. Why?
Ans: From late 15th century to 19th century large number of temples were constructed in Bengal. Individuals or groups often constructed temples to show their power and piety. Many of brick and terracotta temples were built with support of low, social groups like Kolu (oil pressers) and Kansari (bell metal workers). European trading companies created economic opportunities. As their social and economic position improved, the construction of temples was further started. Local deities earlier worshipped in thatched huts were given recognition by the Brahmanas. Their images were being housed in temples.
Ques 24: Plow was Mughal architecture influenced by regional art?
Ans: The creation of large empires that brought different regions under their rule helped in the cross fertilization of artistic forms and architectural styles. Mughal rulers were skilled in adapting regional architectural styles in the construction of their own buildings. For example, in Bengal, rulers had developed a roof that was designed to resemble a thatched hut. The Mughals liked this "Bangia dome" so much that they used it in their architecture. In Akbar's capital at Fatehpur Sikri many of the buildings bear the impact of the architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa. The authority of the Mughal rulers waned in the eighteenth century; the architectural styles developed under their patronage were constantly used and adapted by other rulers whenever they tried to establish their own kingdoms.
Ques 25: Describe the proceeding of the Legislative Assembly.
Ans: The ruling party and the opposition meet in the Legislative Assembly. They have debate on the current problems. During this time the MLAs can express their opinion and ask relevant questions from the minister concerned. They may even ask supplementary questions while the answers are being given by minister concerned. If they are not satisfied with the reply, they may even give suggestions regarding the issue being discussed. The ministers reply and try to assure the house about the measures being taken.
Ques 26: There was economic inequality during Mughal rule. How?
Ans: The Mughal empire in the seventeenth century and after:
(i) The administrative and military efficiency of the Mughal Empire led to great economic and commercial prosperity.
(ii) International travellers described it as the fabled land of wealth.
(iii) These visitors were also surprised at the state of extreme poverty that existed side by side.
(iv) The inequalities were glaring.
(a) Documents from the twentieth year of ShahJahan's reign say that the highest ranking mansabdar were only 445 in number out of a total of 8000.
(b) A mere 5.6 per cent of the total number of mansabdars, received 61.5 per cent of the total estimated revenue of the empire as salaries for themselves and their troopers.
Ques 27: Give an account of the different layers of the atmosphere.
Ans: Our atmosphere has five different layers. They are:
(i) Troposphere: It is the most important layer of the atmosphere with average height of 13 km from the earth. The air that we breathe exists here. Almost all the weather phenomena such as rainfall, fog and hailstorm occur here.
(ii) Stratosphere: This layer extends up to a height of 50 km. It presents the most ideal conditions for flying aeroplanes. It contains a layer of ozone gas which protects us from harmful effects of the sun rays.
(iii) Mesosphere: This layer extends up to a height of 80 km. Meteorites burn up in this layer on entering from the space.
(iv) Thermosphere: In this layer, temperature rises very rapidly with increasing height. Ionosphere is the part of this layer. This layer extends between 80- 400 km. It helps in radio transmission. Radio waves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the earth by this layer.
(v) Exosphere: It is the uppermost layer where there is very thin air. Light gases such as helium and hydrogen float into the space from here.
Ques 28: On an outline map of India, identify the provinces of Delhi Sultanate during Muhammad Tughlaq's reign and mark Lahore, Multan, Delhi and Oudh.