Social and Cultural Awakening UPSC Notes | EduRev

संशोधन नोटस Revision notes for UPSC (Hindi)

Created by: Mn M Wonder Series

UPSC : Social and Cultural Awakening UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Social and Cultural Awakening UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course संशोधन नोटस Revision notes for UPSC (Hindi).
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
  • The chief religious and social movements set afoot in the 19th century were the Brahmo Samaj, the Paramhans Sabha, the Theosophical Society, The Rama Krishna Mission, the Arya Samaj, the Rahnumai Mazdayasnan, the Ahmediya Movement, Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee and several others. They have exercised a healthy influences in reforming several religions.
  • The Brahmo Samaj came into being in 1828 as a result of the ceaseless efforts of Raja Ram Mohan Roy who had at first or ganised the Atmiya Sabha.
  • It preached the unity of God and being dissatisfied with the orthodox creed of idol worship, denounced it.
  • It accepted only rationalistic explanation of religious ten’ets and rejected the dogmas. With the object of propagating his views the Raja started the Samavada Kaumadi.
  • His death in 1833 gave a rude shock to the Sabha, but it regained strength under the guidance of Deve ndranath Tagore and Keshab Chandra sen.
  • The Paramhansa Sabha was founded in 1849 but its influence did not extend to a large number of people.
  • The Theosophical Society was first started in U.S.A. in 1875 by Blavatsky in conjunction with Olcott. They came to India in 1879 and set up their headuarters at Adyar (Madras). Mrs. Annie Besant enrolled herself as a member of the society in 1889.    She was its chief organiser and promoter in this country and dedicated her life to its work. The aims of the Society were to rejuvenate ancient religions and lend them sufficient strength.
  • The Rama Krishna Mission. Swami Vivekanand a seer of magnetic personality and world-famed expositor of the Hindu philosophy, founded the Rama Krishna Mission in 1889 with the object of expounding the Hindu religion of rational basis.
  • The Arya Samaj. Swami Danand who could not reconcile himself to the dogmas in the Hindu religion founded the Arya Samaj in 1875 with the object of purging it. His teachings are contained in the Satyarth Prakash and he has criticized almost all religions. He desired to restore religious view of the Rig Vedic period. He was a staunch opponent of idol worship. He really did yeoman’s service to Hinduism and the wave of conversions to Christianity and Islam was checked considerably.
                                                           Important Battles
1.    First Battle of Tarain-1191: Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Gori.
2     Second Battle of Tarain-1192: Prithviraj Chauhan defeated by Muhammad Gori.
3.    Battle of Chandawar-1194: Jaichand, the ruler of Kanauj, was defeated by Ghoi.
4.    First Battle of Panipat-1526: Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
5.    Battle of  Khanwa-1527: Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
6.    Battle of Ghaghar-1529: Babur defeated Afghans.
7.    Battle of Chausa-1539: Shershah defeated Humayun.
8.    Battle of Kanauj or Bilgram-1540: Shershah defeated Humayun, captured Delhi.
9.    Second Battle of Panipat-1556: Akbar defeated Hemu.
10.  Battle of Talikota or Bannihatti-1565: Vijayanagar defeated by combined forces of five Muslim states.
11.  The Battle of Haldighati-1576: Akbar defeated Rana Pratap.
12.  Battle of Asirgarh-1601: Last battle of Akbar.
13.  andhar invested by the Persians-1606.
14.  andhar relieved by the Mughals-1607
15.  Mewar submits to Mughals-1615.
16.  andhar again taken by Persia-1622.
17.  andhar taken back by the Mughals-1638.
18.  andhar again lost to Persia-1649 and never recovered again.
19.  Battle of Dharmat and Samugarh-1658: Dara defeated by Aurangzeb.
20.  Battle of Khajwab and Deorai-1659.
21.   Battle of Jajah-1707.

 

  • The Rahnumai Mazdayasan. It was a Parsi organisation brought into existence in 1851 under the patronage of Dadabhai Narowjee. It did commendable service to the Parsi religion and community .
  • Christian Missionaries. There was a great influx of Christian Missionaries in India after 1813. They came to this land with the object of carrying on proselytisation and in the beginning succeeded in converting some high caste Hindus to Christianity, but later on they diverted their attention to the depressed classes where they found much scope for their work. They succeeded in creating a small Christian community in India but the indirect effect of their activities was that the Indians began to reform their religions to checkmate exploitation of their shortcomings by the Christian Missionaries.
  • The Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. The Sikhs did not lag behind other communities in matters of reform. They felt that their Gurudawaras were not being managed properly and the Mahants who held their charge had given themselves up to a life of luxury. So the Gurudawara Prabandhak Committee was constituted. It was recognised by the government who transferred the control of Gurudwaras to this committee.
  • The Deccan Education Society was started in 1884 with the purpose of spreading the principle of ‘simple living and high thinking’. It also aimed at spreading education. The Fergusson College was founded by it. Gokale and Tilak were its members.
  • Bhoodan Yajna. Acharya Vinoba Bhave started his work in 1950 and toured the country on foot appealing to big landlords to donate land to him for distribution among the poor landless villagers.
  • The object of this movement was to secure economic justice in the country. The Acharya had received sincere co-operation from all uarters of the country and several hundred thousand acres of land had been made available to him.
  • Shri Jai Prakash Narain, the leader of the Socialist Party, has followed the suit.
  • Aligarh Movement—Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the pioneer of Aligarh Movement attempted to modernize the Muslims and encouraged them to get English education. The Movement made valuable contribution to the educational, social and economic progress of the Muslims. It opposed to Indian nationalism and the All India Congress because it depended on the favour of the English.
  • Arhar Movement—The Movement was founded under the leadership of Maulana Muhammed Ali, Hakim Ajmal Kha, Hasan Imam and others. These youngmen disliked the Loyalist politics of the Aligarh school. In fluenced by the modern ideas they advocated active participation on the militant nationalist movement.
  • Ahmedia Movement—This Muslim Reform Movement was launched by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed in 1899.    It emphasised the universal and humanitarian character of Islam and tried to promote cordial relations among members of various communities. It started a number of schools and college where modern education was imparted.
  • Servants of India Society— Founded in 1905 by Gokhale with its headuarters at Poona. It imparted welfare work for the Adivasis, Harizans, Backward classes and tribals, organized the work of political education and agitation, basing it on a careful study of public uestions. Created among the people a deep and passionate love of India and seeking its highest fulfilment in service and sacrifice. Promoted good will and cooperation among the different communities.
  • Ghadar Party—It was formed in 1913 in USA by Indian revolutionaries in USA and Canada. Its purpose was to wage revolutionary war against the British to India. The Ghadarists fixed 21st February, 1915 as the date for an armed revolt in the Punjab. Unfortunately, the authorities came to know of these plans and took immediate action. The rebellions regiments were disbanded and their leaders were either imprisoned or hanged.
  • Red Shirts Movement—Inspired by the Dandi March of Gandhi, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, popularly known as the “Frontier Gandhi” organised the Society of Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly known as Red Shirts. They were pledged to non-violence and the freedom struggle.
     
  Tribal Movements
  Movements, area affected & Leaders Causes and Consequences
1 Chuar Rising (Midnapur, Bengal 1766-1772 & 1795-1816). Bengal famine 1760, enhanced revenue demand and economy distress. British suppressed the revolt through use of force
2 Hos (Singhbhum 1820, 1822 & 1832). Occupation of Singhbhum by British and    exploitation of tribals. The Hos tribals were suppressed by the British.
3 Kol uprising (Chottanagpur 1831-32) Led by Buddha Bhagat. The Kol resented transfer of land to outsiders-Muslims & Sikhs. Order was restored after large military operation.
4 Ahom Revolt (Assam 1828-33) led by Gomadhar Konwar. Attempts to incorporate Ahom territory sparked off rebellion. British adopted a pacific policy and handed upper Assam to Purander Singh Narendra.
5 Khasi Uprising (Khasi Hills-Assam and          Meghalaya 1829-32). Led by Tirat Singh and  Bar Manik. Ruler of Nunklow Tirat Singh resented the    occupation of Jantia and Garo by the British. The movement was suppressed in 1833.
6 Bhils (Khandesh 1817-19, 1825, 1831, 1847).Led by Sewaram Against the new masters the company. Agrarian hardship and apprehension. Finally suppressed by the British.
7 Kolis (Sahyadri Hills-Gujarat-Maharashtra   1824, 1829, 1839, 1844-48).  Against the imposition of British rule and dismentlement of the forts of the Koli tribals. The revolt was finally suppressed.
8 Koyas and Kond a Dara M uttada rs (Rampa Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh, 1840, 1845, 1858, 1861-62, 1879-80, 1886, 1916, 1922-24).
In 1922-24 led by Alluri Sitara-maraju.
The tribals revolted against police extraction, new excise banning home brewing of toddy, ban on shifting cultivation and exploitation by traders & money lenders. Finally suppressed by the 
  • Satya Shodhak Samaj—One of the earliest movements which took up the cause of the lower castes against Brahman domination was Satya Shodak Samaj of Jyotiba Phule in Maharashtra. It insisted on the discarding of sacordotal authority of the Brahmanas and tried to make the lower castes conscious of their rights through education.
  • Sri Narayana Dharma Pratipalana yogam—In the South the first step in the direction of organising a movement of lower castes was taken by the Ezhavas. Sri Narayan Guru founded the SNDP Yogam with a view to break the social taboos imposed by the Brahmanas.
  • All India Depressed classes Federation—In 1920 B.R. Ambedkar organised this federation for the protection of depressed classes against higher castes.
  • Vaikom Satyagraha—A satyagraha was organised in Kerala (March 1924) for the use of the temple roads by avarnas like Ezhavas and Pulayas. Many savarna organisations such as Nair service Society, Nair Samajam and Kerala Hindu Sabha supported the Satyagraha. On 30th march, the satyagrahis led by K.P. Kesava Menon, marched towards the temple. They were arrested and sentenced to imprisonment.
  • Harijan Sevak Sangh—In 1932 Mahatma Gandhi founded it which worked for the upliftment of the backward classes and provided necessary facilities for education, medical treatment etc. Ambedkar was also associated with their Sangh. However, he was not quite happy with the activities of the Harijan Sevak Sangh and the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the lower castes. Therefore, he withdrew from the Sangh and started a fresh movement for the protection of interests of the lower castes.
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of UPSC

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

pdf

,

study material

,

Extra Questions

,

MCQs

,

Summary

,

Free

,

practice quizzes

,

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Important questions

,

Social and Cultural Awakening UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

ppt

,

mock tests for examination

,

Social and Cultural Awakening UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

Exam

,

Objective type Questions

,

Social and Cultural Awakening UPSC Notes | EduRev

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Viva Questions

,

video lectures

;