Solubility product Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Chemistry Class 11

Class 11 : Solubility product Class 11 Notes | EduRev

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Solubility Product

There are many salts that are sparingly soluble in water. E.g., are AgCl, BaSO4 , CaF2 , Ca (PO4)2 and PbI2 . When such a salt is placed in water, a small quantity passes into water as ions. A dynamic equilibrium between the solid and its characteristics ions exists in the solution. Taking the example of AgCl, we have AgCl(s) ⇔ Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

At the equilibrium position, the rate of dissolution of ions from the solid is equal to the rate of precipitation of ions from the saturated solution. As usual, the equilibrium can be characterized by equilibrium constant. In the present case, we have

Solubility product Class 11 Notes | EduRev
Since the concentration of a pure solid has a constant value, the concentration of solid AgCl may be combined with Keq to give a new constant, called the solubility product.

Ksp = Keq [AgCl(s)] = [Ag+ (aq)][Cl- (aq)]

Thus, the solubility product is equal to the product of the ionic concentrations present in a saturated solution. When the salt dissolves to give an unequal number of positive and negative ions, each concentration term is raised to a power equal to the coefficient of the ion appearing in the equation.

Solubility product Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Fig: Solubility product

Expressions of solubility product for a few sparingly soluble salts

Salt

Reaction

Solubility product expression

CaF2

CaF2 ⇔ Ca2+ + 2F-

Ksp(CaF2) = [Ca2+] [F-]2

pbl2

PbI2 ⇔ Pb2+ + 2I-

KSp(Pbl2) = [Pb2+] [I-]2

Hg2Cl2

Hg2CI2 -> Hg22+ + 2CI-

Ksp(Hg2CI2) = [Hg22+][C|-]2

Al(OH)3

Al(OH) ⇔ Al3++3OH-

Ksp(Al(OH)3)=[Al3+][OH-]3

Ag3(Po4)

Ag3(P04)⇔ 3Ag++po43-

KSp(Ag3(P04) = [Ag + ]3[P043-]

Ca3(PO4)2

Ca3(P04)2⇔3Ca2++2PO43-

KSp(Ca3(P04)2) = [Ca2 + ]3[P043-]2

Since the solubility of a salt varies with temperature, the numerical value of K for a salt changes with temperature. These values are usually recorded at 25 ° C.

Salt

Ksp

salt

Ksp

AgCl

1.7 x 10-10 (mol dm-3)2

PbCl2

1.6 x 10-5(mol dm-3)3

AgBr

5.0 x 10-13 (mol dm-3)2

Hg2Cl2

1.1 x 10-18(mol dm-3)3

Agl

8.5 x 10-17 (mol dm-3)2

Mg(OH)2

8.9 x 10-13(mol dm-3)3

BaCO3

1.6 x 10-8 (mol dm-3)2

pbl2

8.3 x 10-9(mol dm-3)3

BaSO4

1.5 x 10-9 (mol dm-3)2

Ca(OH)2

1.3 x 10-6(mol dm-3)3

BaCrO4

8.5 x 10-11 (mol dm-3)2

Al(OH)3

5.0 x 10-33(mol dm-3)4

HgS

3.0 x 10-53 (mol dm-3)2

CdS

1.0 x 10-28(mol dm-3)2

ZnS

2.5 x 10-22(mol dm-3)2

CoS

7 x 10-23(mol dm-3)2

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