What is meant by “sustainable development” ?
Sustainable development is the development which meets the current basic human needs and also preserves the resources for the needs of future generations.
What is silviculture ? What are its advantages ?
Silviculture is a major program started to replenish depleting forests. Its advantages are:
Write a short note on ‘Chipko Andolan’ (Hug the Trees Movement).
The ‘Chipko Andolan’ (Hug the Trees Movement) originated from an incident in a remote village called ‘Reni’ in Garhwal in the early 1970’s. A logging contractor had been allowed to cut down trees in a forest close to a village. One day, when the men folk of the village were out for work, the contractor’s workers came in the forest to cut down the trees. In the absence of the men, the women of the village reached the forest quickly and clasped the tree trunks with their arms, preventing the workers from cutting down the trees. The forest trees were thus saved. The Chipko Movement quickly spread across all the communities and helped in the conservation of forests.
Why should we conserve forests and wildlife ?
The forests and wildlife should be conserved to prevent undue damage to the environment as it helps in maintaining ecological balance in nature and preserves the gene pool.
Describe briefly the ‘khadin’ system of rainwater harvesting practised in Rajasthan.
The ‘Khadin’ system of rainwater harvesting in Rajasthan is a very long (100 m – 300 m long) earthen embankment called ‘Bund’ built across the lower edge of the sloping farmland. The rainwater from the catchment area flows down the slopes and stopped by the ‘Bund’ to form a reservoir. The rainwater which collects in the reservoir formed by the ‘Bund’, and in the well, seeps slowly into the land (or ground). This water – saturated land is subsequently used for growing crops.
What measures would you take to conserve electricity in your house ?
The measures for conservation of electricity in our house are:
Although coal and petroleum are produced by the degradation of biomass, even then we need to conserve them. Why ?
Coal and petroleum needs to be conserved as they once get exhausted will not be available to us in near future (because they are formed extremely slowly over a very long period of time).
Is water conservation necessary ? Give reasons.
Yes, water conservation is very necessary because it meets the basic necessities for all forms of life like human beings, animals and plants.
Name the products of combustion of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum products. How do they affect us and our environment ?
When coal and petroleum based fuels are burned, the products of combustion are: carbon dioxide, water, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. If combustion takes place in an insufficient supply of air then carbon monoxide is also produced.
These products are harmful to human beings and also pollute the environment in the following ways-
Why should fossil fuels like coal and petroleum be used judiciously ?
We should use fossil fuels judiciously because:
What are the three R’s to save the environment ? Explain with one example of each.
The three R’s to save the environment are:
What are the main uses of coal and petroleum products ?
Coal is used as a fuel in homes and industries and is also used to generate electricity at Thermal Power Plants. Petroleum products such as petrol and diesel are used as fuels in transport to run scooters, cars, buses etc.
State any five steps to reduce the consumption of coal and petroleum products.
The steps which can be taken to reduce the consumption of coal and petroleum products are:
Explain why, despite good rains, we are not able to meet the demand for water of all the people in our country.
Despite good rains, we are not able to meet the demand for water of all people because:
Give one example to show how the participation of local people can lead to the efficient management of forests.
People participation in the management of forests can help in increasing forest produce as well as in their conservation. Participation of local people in the management of forest leads to the revival of degraded sal forest. In 1972, the West Bengal Forest Department formulated a novel scheme to revive the degraded sal forest by involving the local people. The forest officer A. K. Banerjee involved the villagers of the area around the forest in the protection of 1272 hectares of degraded Sal forest. In return for help in protecting the forest, the villagers were given employment in both silviculture and harvesting operations of the forest, 25 percent of the final harvest produce, and were allowed to collect firewood and fodder from the forest area on a nominal payment. With the active and willing participation of local people around the forest, the degraded sal forest of Arabari became thick and green within ten years.
Explain briefly, how rainwater harvesting is done from open spaces around the buildings in city areas.
The rainwater harvesting from open spaces around the buildings in a city is done by constructing percolation pits covered with concrete slabs having holes in them, and connected to a recharge well through a pipe. The rainwater falling in the open spaces around buildings goes into the percolation pit through the holes in its concrete slab cover. After filtration in percolation pit, rainwater enters the recharge well through the outlet pipe and gradually seeps into the soil.
(a) What is a natural resource ? Name three important natural resources.
(b) Why do we need to manage our natural resources ?
(a) Anything in the environment which can be used by human beings is called a natural resource. The important natural resources are forest and wild life, water and coal.
(b) We need to manage our natural resources because:
(a) State the advantages of constructing dams across the rivers.
(b) Describe some of the problems associated with the construction of dams.
(a) The advantages of constructing dams across the rivers are:
(b) The problems associated with the construction of dams are:
(a) Name any five sources of water (other than rivers)
(b) Describe how, the water of river Ganga has been highly polluted.
(a) The sources of water are – Lakes, Rains, Ponds, Wells and Glaciers.
(b) The river Ganga is polluted. The water of river Ganga is turned into a dirty watered rain by the discharge of untreated sewage and industrial wastes.
The pollution of river Ganga is also caused by human activities like, Bathing, washing of clothes, immersion of ashes of the dead and dumping of unburnt corpses into its water.
The industries also discharge effluents into the river water.
(a) Name the major industries which are based on forest produce.
(b) State the main aim of the management of forests and wildlife.
(c) Name the four main stakeholders in the management of forest resources.
(a) The various industries which are based on forest produce are; timber industry, paper manufacturing industry, ‘lac’ industry and sports equipment industry.
(b) The main aim of the management of forests and wild life is to conserve the biodiversity which we have inherited.
(c) The main stakeholders in the management of forest resources are:
(a) What is meant by rainwater harvesting ? Name some of the ancient structures used for rainwater harvesting by the rural people.
(b) What are the various advantages of water stored in ground ?
(a) Rainwater harvesting is the collection of rain water falling on land for recharging the ground water. The structures of rain water harvesting are: Khadin, Tanks, Kulhs, Ponds, Eris, Tals and Kattas.
(b) The various advantages of water stored in the ground are: