Sources of Energy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : Sources of Energy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Acids: Indicators, General characteristics, Properties of acids, Chemical nature of acids.

Sources of Energy: A source of energy is that which is capable of providing enough useful energy at a steady rate over a long period of time.

A Good source of energy should be :

  • Safe and convenient to use, For example; energy nuclear can be used only by highly trained engineers with the help of nuclear power plants. It cannot be used for our household purpose.
  • Easy to transport, For example; coal, petrol, diesel, LPG etc. have to be transported from the places of their production to the consumers.
  • Easy to store, For example; huge storage tanks are required to store petrol, diesel, LPG etc.

Characteristics of a good fuel

  • High calorific value.
  • Less smoke.
  • Less residue after burning.
  • Easy availability.
  • Inexpensive.
  • Easy to store and transport.

Classification of Sources of energy
The sources of energy can be classified as follows :

  1. Renewable sources of energy.
  2. Non-Renewable sources of energy.

1. Renewable sources of energy: Renewable sources of energy are those which are inexhaustible, i.e., which can be replaced as we use them and can be used to produce energy again and again.
These are available in an unlimited amount in nature and develop within a relatively short period of time.
Example of Renewable Sources of Energy :

  • Solar energy.
  • Wind energy.
  • Water energy (hydro-energy).
  • Geothermal energy.
  • Ocean energy.
  • Biomass energy (firewood, animal dung and biodegradable waste from cities and crop residues constitute biomass).

Advantages of Renewable Sources of Energy

  • These sources will last as long as the Earth receives light from the sun.
  • These sources are freely available in nature.
  • These sources do not cause any pollution.

2. Non-Renewable Source of Energy: Non-renewable sources of energy are those which are exhaustible and cannot be replaced once they have been used. These sources have been accumulated in nature over a very long period of millions of years.
Examples of Non-renewable Sources of Energy :

  • Coal.
  • Oil.
  • Natural gas.
    All these fuels are called fossil fuels.

Disadvantages of Non-renewable Sources of Energy

  • Due to their extensive use, these sources are fast depleting.
  • It is difficult to discover and exploit new deposits of these sources.
  • These sources are a major cause of environmental pollution.

Fossil Fuels: Fossil fuels are the remains of prehistoric plants and animals which got buried deep inside the early millions of years ago due to some natural processes.
These fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy and cause environmental problems due to pollution.

Formation of Fossil Fuels: During its formation, an entire organism or its parts often get buried in sand or mud. These, then decay and disintegrate leaving no signs of their existence. Infact, the harder parts of organisms after their death settle down and are covered by sediments and subjected to extreme pressure and temperature or the Earth converts them into fossil fuels, the process being referred to as fossilization.

Disadvantage of Fossil Fuels

  • The fossils are non-renewable sources of energy and once used cannot be renewed.
  • Burning of fossil fuels causes air pollution.
  • The fossil fuels reserves in the Earth are limited and may get exhausted soon.

Thermal Power Plants: It generates electricity from heat produced by combustion of coal and petroleum. For example; fossil fuels.
Use coal, petroleum and natural gas produce thermal electricity.
Electricity transmission is very efficient.
The steam produced by burning fossil fuels nans the turbine to produce electricity.

Source of energy are also classified as

  • Conventional sources of energy and
  • Non- conventional sources of energy.

(i) Conventional Sources of Energy are those which are used extensively and meet a marked portion of our energy requirement and these are :
(a) Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) and
(b) Hydro energy (energy of water flowing in rivers).
Biomass energy and wind energy also fall in this category as these are being used since ancient times.

(ii) Non-conventional Sources of Energy are those which are not used as extensively as the conventional ones and meet our energy requirement only on a limited scale. Solar energy, ocean energy, (tidal energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, OTE), Geothermal energy and nuclear energy belong to this category. These sources of energy which have been tapped with the aid of advances in technology to meet our growing energy needs are also called alternative sources of energy.

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