SPECIAL INFORMATION OF INDIAN HISTORY
- Evidence of ‘fractional burial’ has been found at Harappa.
- Which animal was probably not known to the people of the Indus Valley Civilization? – Horse.
- Which weapon was probably unknown to the people of the Indus Valley Civilization? – Sword.
- Who gave the theory that the original home of the Aryans was the Arctic Region? – B.G. Tilak.
- The prevailing form of government among the Rig-Vedic tribes was monarchical.
- Two of the most famous Rig-Vedic clans were Purus and Tristus.
- Division of society into four Varnas (classes) has been first mentioned in the Rig Veda.
- The Veda consists of four different classes of literary compositions. One is the Mantra and the other three are Brahmanas, Upanishads, Aranyakas.
- Which Rig Vedic God lost importance in the later Vedic Age? – Indra.
- What was Vrihi in the later Vedic Age? – Rice.
- In the later Vedic Age, who was the Officer-in-Charge of royal treasure? – Samgrahitri.
- In the Age of the sixteen Mahajanapadas, there were four great kingdoms. One was Magadha and the other three were Avanti, Kosala and Vatsa.
- Mahavira and Buddha preached their doctrines during the regin of Bimbisara.
- During the Sangam Age, Ilango Adigal was the famous ruler of which dynasty? – Cholas
- Which Tamil work shows a greater Aryan influence? – Tirukkural.
- Tamil poetry in the Sangam Age was divided into two main groups. One was puram which dealt with the praise of kings and the other was a game which dealt with love.
- What God of Marudam was worshiped by the cultivators in the Sangam Age? – Indra.
- Buddha's father was the chief of the tribe called Sakyas.
- The Buddha preached his first sermon (set in motion the Wheel of the Law) at Sarnath to five ascetics.
- The word ‘Buddha’ means an enlightened one.
- Which Buddhist Council resulted in the establishment of the Sthaviravada, and orthodox school of Buddhism? – Third Buddhist Council.
- Which school of Buddhism was “the Vehicle of the Thunderbolt”? – Vajrayana.
- The first Jain Tirthankar was Rishabdev.
- Which women held discussions with Mahavira? – Jayanti
- The Harivamsa is an important appendix to the Mahabharata.
- The incarnation of Vishnu which is yet to come is Kalkin.
- Which of the following gods was still important at the time of the Epics? – Agni.
- Which Mauryan ruler asked Antiochus I, the ruler of Syria, to send him some sweet wine, dried figs, and a sophist? – Bindusara.
- At the time of Ashoka, who was the ruler of Macedonia? – Antigonus Gonatus.
- Who mentioned that slavery did not exist in India during the Mauryan Age? – Megasthenes.
- Which class of officers governed the rural areas in the Mauryan Empire and acted as assessment officers also? – Rajukas.
- The trade route Uttarapatha (Great Northern Route) went from Taxila to Mathura.
- In the Post-Gupta Period, what was Bhaga? – Regular revenue.
- In the Post-Gupta period, what was charged over and above the land revenue? – Danda.
- Who gave the Agnikul theory which explained the origin of the Rajputs? – Chand Bardai.
- Which Rajput dynasty had rulers who were followers of Vajrayana Buddhism? – Palas.
- The Rashtrakutas defeated the Chola ruler Parantaka.
- Under the Cholas, the gatherings of the adult men in Brahmana villages were called Agraharas.
- Which Delhi Sultan described himself as the Caliph's lieutenant on his coins? – Iltutmish.
- Which Delhi Sultan remarked “I am a Muss-alman of a Mussalman stock”? – Alauddin Khilji.
- To improve cultivation, who set up a separate department called Diwan-iAmir-kohi? – Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- Who undertook the extension of the Qutb Mosque? – Alauddin Khilji.
- The Jamaat Khana Masjid was built by Alauddin Khilji.
- Which Sufi saint was also a famous musician?– Pir Bodhan.
- Sayana, who was Minister in the Vijayanagar Empire, was a learned scholar of the Vedas.
- Which Afghan ruler of Bengal and Bihar was defeated by Akbar in 1676? – Daud Khan.
- Who resisted Akbar's attempts to capture Chittor? – Jai Mall.
- Removal of abwabs (taxes levied over and above the land revenue) was an early reform of Aurangzeb.
- In Shivaji's Ashtapradhan Council, who was in charge of foreign affairs? Sumant.
- The last Maratha leader to fight Aurangzeb was Tara Bai.
- In 1800, a Maratha statesman died and with him departed “all the wisdom and moderation of the Maratha Government”. Who was he? – Nana Fadnavis.
- From 1717 to 1727, the Nawab of Bengal was Murshid Quali Khan.- Which ruler of Mysore was proficient in designing ships? – Tipu Sultan.
- Who allegedly took English prisoners to Patna and got them murdered by the German adventurer Somru? – Mir Qasim.
- The First Factory Law which dealt with working hours of labourers including children, was passed in 1881 during the viceroyalty of Lord Ripon.
- The only Viceroy to be assassinated in India was Lord Mayo.
- Which was not a bhadralok caste in 19th Century Bengal? – Shudra.
- The militant ‘Gurukul’ faction of the Arya Samaj was founded by Munshi Ram and Lekh Ram.
- Sivanath Sastri was an important Brahmo leader.
- Who established a Vedanta College in which courses both in Indian learning and in Western social and physical sciences were offered? – Rammohan Roy.
- Who remarked “So long as freedom of thought is not developed, there can be no civilized life”? – Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
- The Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was - founded in 1928 by Bhagat Singh, Ajoy Ghosh and Jatindranath.
- Hindoo Patriot — Harish Chandra Mukherji
- Young India — Lala Lajpat Rai
- The Bengalee — Surendranath Banerjee
- The Kesari, Maharatta — B.G. Tilak
- The Hindu, and Swadesamitran — G. Subramaniya Iyer
- Amrita Bazar Patrika— Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh
- Indian Mirror — N.N. Sen
- Voice of India — Dadabhai Naoroji
- Hindustani, Advocate — G.P. Varma
- New India and Commonwealth — Annie Besant
- Young India and Navajivan — M.K. Gandhi
- The Socialist — S.A. Dange
- Navayug — Muzaffar Ahmed
- Langal - Muzaffar Ahmed and Nazrul Islam
- Inquilab — Ghulam Hussain
- Labour-Kisan Gazette — M. Singaravelu
- Al Hilal — Abul Kalam Azad
- The Talvar — Bhikaji Cama
- Bombay Chronicle — Pherozeshah Mehta
- Dawn — M.A. Jinnah
- Bande Mataram — Aurobindo Ghosh
- Sanjivani — K.K. Mitra
- Sandhya — B.Upadhaya
Nil Darpan — Dinabandhu Mitra
Anandamath, Durgesh Nandini and Devi Choudhurani — Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Memoirs of Hyderabad Freedom Struggle — Swami Ramanand Tirtha
India Today — R. Palme Dutt
The Rise and Growth of the Congress in India — C.F. Andrews and Girija Mukerji
The Economic History of India — Romesh Chandra Dutt
Thakurmar Jhuli — Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumdar
The Indian War of independence-1857 — V.D. Savarkar
Indian Unrest — Valentine Chirol
The Philosophy of the Bomb — Bhagwati Charan Vohra
Why Socialism — Jayaprakash Narayan
Discovery of India — J.L. Nehru
Nibandhamala — V.Chipulkar
Savitri — Aurobindo Ghosh
Wheel of History — Ram Manohar Lohia
India in Transition — M.N. Roy
India Divided — Rajendra Prasad
The Golden Threshold, The Bird of Time, The Broken Wing, The Feather of the Dawn — Sarojini
- Who remarked “Success comes to those who dare ”? – J.L. Nehru.
Pandit Jawahar lal nehru
- Who put forward a plan for the division of India into two independent states in June, 1947? – Mountbatten.
- The historic sites of Mohenjodaro and Harappa were discovered in the 1920s.
- What was the ancient name given to the Indus region by the Mesopotamians? – Meluha.
- The river per excellence of the Aryans as mentioned in the Rig veda – Sindhu.
- Child marriage was not practiced in Rig Vedic society
- Which metal is called Syama or Krishna ayas in the later Vedic texts? – Iron.
- Which God occupied the supreme position in the later Vedic pantheon? – Prajapati.
- Which Sangam Age dynasty was first mentioned by Megasthenes? – Pandyas.
- Which Sangam Age dynasty's chief centre of political power was Uraiyur, a place famous for cotton trade? –Pandyas.
- Sangam Literature was finally compiled by 600 A.D.
- During the Sangam Age, the Romans are said to have built a temple of Augustus at Muziris.
- At which Sangam was the Tolkappiyam (early Tamil grammar) compiled, according to Tamil tradition? – The Second Sangam (Madurai).
- The earliest surviving form of Buddhism is called Theravada.
- The three main elements in Buddhism are Buddha, Sangha and Dhamma.
WHY DID BUDDHISM DECLINE?
(i) Monasteries had abundance of wealth and women by the 7th century A.D.,
(ii) Buddhist monk gave up the use of Pali and adopted Sanskrit
(iii) Buddhist monasteries were plundered by Turkish invaders.
- Which Buddhist scripture consists of religious discourses and sayings of Buddha? – Sutta Pitaka.
- Terapanthis and Samaiyas are associated with Jainism.
- The greatest emphasis in Jainism was on Ahimsa.
- In Indian mythology, ‘Sutaputra’ is the name given to Karna.
- The future Buddha (the Buddha yet to come) who was worshipped as a Bodhisattva was Maitreya.
- The capital of the Mauryan dynasty was Pataliputra.
- Scripts which were used in Asokan inscriptions– Brahmi, Kharosthi, Aramaic and Greek.
- In the Mauryan Age, what was pana? – A silver coin.
- Ashokan pillars are made of sandstone.
- Which Mauryan ruler was known to the Greeks as Amitrachates? – Bindusara.
- Which dynasty shows traces of a matrilineal social structure? – Satavahanas.
FACTS TO BE REMEMBERED
- The Guptas were possibly Vaishyas.
- The earliest coins belong to 5th Century B.C.
- By and large slaves in ancient India were meant for domestic work.
- St. Thomas is believed to have come to India to propagate Christianity during the reign of Gondophares.
- The autonomy of the Chola village gradually got restricted due to growth of feudalism.
- Amritsar was founded in 1577 by Guru Ram Das.
- In the 18th century, the Rohillas were defeated by Scindhia.
- The zamindars lost their police powers during the Governor — Generalship of Cornwallis.
- The tribals of the Kacha Nagas of Cachar in 1882. attacked Whites.
- The Ahmadiyya Movement was founded in 1889 by Gulam Ahmed.
- The Hunas were defeated by Prabhakar Vardhan.
- The title varman was adopted by the Kings of Kamarupa.
- King Amoghavarsha wrote a book on poetics in Kannada. He belonged to the Rashtrakuta dynasty.
- The Nath-Panthis were the followers of Gorakhnath.
- The Brihadisvara Temple at Tanjore was built by the Chola King Raja Raja Chola.
- The Sultan of Delhi who introduced the practice of Sijda was Balban.
- Six granaries have been found in the citadel of Harappa.
- The Harappans were the earliest people to produce cotton.
- Most Harappan inscriptions were recorded on seals.
- The Indus culture is poor in artistic works made of stone.
- The Angas constitute the sacred literature of the Jainas.
- In the pre-Gupta period, which port got goods produced in the Satavahana, the Saka and the Kushan Kingdoms? – Broach.
- In pre-Gupta times, a large number of lead coins were issued by the Satavahanas.
- Which was the most important import of the Romans from India? – Spices.
- Which gupta ruler was proficient in playing the lute (vina), as can be gathered from his coins? – Samudragupta.
- Buddhists in Nalanda University were taught the philosophy of the Mahayana school.
- The decline of trade after the 6th century A.D. is strikingly demonstrated by absence of gold coins.
- In the Rig Vedic age, the main source of livelihood was cattle-rearing.
- The earliest specimen of Sanskrit kavya (prose), dated 150 A.D., is the Girnar Inscription of Rudradaman
- What Indian export was called wootz in ancient days? – Steel.
- The tripartite struggle in North India from the eighth to the tenth century involved Palas, Pratiharas, and Rashtrakutas.
- To which dynasty did Nagabhatta II and Mihir Bhoja belong? – Rashtrakuta.
- The Rashtrakuta Empire was established by Danti Durga.
- Nad-gavundas or desagramalatas were hereditary revenue officials.
- In the ninth century A.D., the Chola Empire was founded by Vijayalaya.
- Pampa, Poona and Ranna are regarded as the three gems of Kannada poetry.
- Nala Venba is the Tamil version of the love story of Nala and Damyanti. Who wrote it? – Pugalendi.
- The foremost expounder of Dharmashastra in the period 750-1000 A.D. was Medhatithi.
- Which Chola ruler destroyed the Chera navy at Trivandrum? – Rajaraja Chola.
- What was bhoga ? – A revenue assignment.
- Who is called 'Prince of moneyers'? – Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- Who got himself invested from the Abbassid shadow-Caliph? – Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- Who was the first monarch in the Delhi Sultanate to start direct relations with cultivators to know the actual amount they paid as land revenue? – Alauddin Khilji.
- Which Delhi Sultan repaired and dug a number of Canals? – Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Which Delhi Sultan removed the name of the Caliph from his coins? – Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- The nature of the Delhi Sultanate can best be described as militaristic and aristocratic.
- Which items of trade was monopolised by the Portuguese in India? – Horses.
- The centre of the Sufi saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti was at Ajmer.
- The founder of the first Afghan dynasty in India was Bahlul Lodi.
- Which of the following helped Rana Pratap fight against Akbar in the Battle of Haldighati (1576)? – Afghans and Bhils.
- Who remarked “I almost lost Hindustan for a handful of bajra (grains)”? – Sher Shan Suri.
Sher Shan Suri
- In the Mughal empire, the hereditary holders of land were called Qanungos.
- In Shivaji's Ashtapradhan council who looked after financial affairs? – Amatya.
- Sadashiv Rao was the faithful advisor of Balaji Baji Rao.
- The Marathas began to interfere in the politics of Delhi under the Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath.
- Who was coronated as Chhatrapati in 1749? – Rama Rao.
- Which later Mughal ruler was murdered by his wazir Imad-ul-mulk ? – Alamgir II.
- “He may be called as the last of the rulers of Babur's line as after him kingship became hollow”. Who is ‘He’? – Muhammad Shah.
- The Capital of Asaf-Jahi dynasty was at Hyderabad.
- The Nawab of Bengal who ruled from 1742 to 1756 was Alivardi Khan.
- “I have not found in Iran, Turan or Hind any man equal in capacity and character”. Who is being praised? – Ahmad Shah Abdali.
- Charnock laid the foundation of Calcutta in 1690.
- “He infused into Oriental Despotism the spirit of British freedom”. Who is ‘He’? – Bentinck.
- During 1857 Revolt, Punjab remained quite on various grounds. It was under John Lawrence.
- Who is associated with Indiansation of Civil services? – Ripon.
- Swami Vivekananda attended Parliament of World Religions in 1893-94 at Chicago.
- With which land revenue system in India is Mackenzie associated? – Mahalwari.
- There was a ‘Forest satyagraha’ in Cuddapah (modern Andhra) during the Non-cooperation movement against the Governments tightening up of restrictions for conservancy and revenue purposes.
- Who invoked the authority of ‘Mahanirvana Tantra’ to support his view that caste should no longer continue? – Raja Rommohan Roy.
- The Mahad Satyagraha was organised by the untouchables for the right of using water under the leadership of B.R. Ambedkar.
- The All India Women's Conference aimed at improving the lot of Indian women. It was founded in 1926.
- The twin principles of Gandhi's Ram Rajya were Right means and Right ends.
- ‘Do or Die’ was one of the most powerful slogans of India's freedom struggle. Who gave it? – Gandhi.
- Through the Indian Trade Unions Act, trade unions got legal status. When was it enacted? – 1926.
- Mesopotamian cylinder seals have been found at Mohenjodaro.
- Archaeological excavations at Indus Valley sites show that houses had wells in Kalibangan.
- Which Veda contains many charms and spells and is considered to be a non-Aryan work? – Samudra gupta.
- Who was the highest officer in charge of assessing land revenue in the Mauryan Empire? - Samaharta.
FACTS TO BE REMEMBERED
The two capitals of Magadha were Rajgir and Pataliputra.
The second great council of the Buddhists was held during the time of the Sisunagas.
In the Sangam Age, Puhar was the famous port of the Cholas.
In the thirteenth year of his asceticism Mahavir become a ‘Jina’ which means conqueror.
Shiva evolved from the fierce Vedic God called Rudra.
Tuzuk-i-Baburi has been written originally in Turki.
The Angas constitute the sacred literature of the Jainas.
Basadis (monastic establishments) are associated with Jainism
Kumarajiva was a famous Buddhist philosopher.
Ravikirti was the Court poet of Pulakesin II.
The oldest Sanskrit poet is Asvaghosha.
The earliest linguistic text is Nirukta of Yasaka.
The offical language of the Satavahanas was Prakrit.
Chand Bibi fought against the forces of Aurangzeb.
The altamgha land grant was introduced by Jehangir.
Under Shivaji, the share of the state of the collected produce was 40%.
The Battle of Wandiwash greatly weakened the French.
The Dacca Anushilan was a secret society of revolutionaries. It was founded by Pulin Das.
The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) was founded in 1927 by Birla and Thakurdas.
Indus Valley site of Banawali is in Haryana.
The Indus Valley Civilization was possibly ruled by a class of merchants.
The Ikshvakus were the successors of
- The only son of Ashoka named in his inscriptions is Tivara.
- Which inscription speaks about the success of Ashoka's policy with hunters and fishermen who gave up killing animals? – Kandahar Inscription.
- Which Ashokan pillar was removed by Firoz Shah Tughlaq from Ambala and placed in Delhi? – Topara Pillar.
- Who explained the Theory of Relativity and is called the Indian Einstein? – Nagarjuna.
- Who repaired the Sudarshan Lake? – Skandagupta.
- The subject matter of Vijneswara's Mitakshara is law.
- Kharosthi was used in ancient Indian inscription and architecture. It came from Greece.
- Which dynasty was the first to start the practice of giving land grants to religious beneficiaries? – Satavahanas.
- Which Gupta ruler assumed the tittle of kaviraja (king of poets)? – Samudragupta.
- The most significant Roman export to India (200 B.C.-300 A.D.) was gold and silver coins.
- Which Roman writer wrote Natural History in Latin and complained that Rome was being drained of gold on account of her trade with India? – Ujjain.
- Who overthrew the Hunas, challenged the authority of the Guptas and set up pillars of victory? – Yasodharman.
- Civil and criminal law were clearly defied and demarcated for the first time during Gupta rule.
- During the Gupta Age, silk weavers maintained their own guilds at Mandasor.
- India's foreign trade started declining when the Romans learnt the art of growing silk from the Chinese. The fall in India's exports started around 550 A.D.
- Ajanta cave temples were constructed between 3rd Century B.C. and 6th Century A.D.
- The quinquennial assembly seen by Hien-Tsang during Harsha's reign was held at Prayag.
- Which dynasty in South India put an end to the Brahmadeya rights granted to the Brahmanas in many villages? – The Kalabhras.
- The first statue of the Buddha was fashioned in the Gandhara style.
- Which dynasty had close cultural relations with Tibet? – Palas.
- The real founder of the Pratihara empire was Bhoja.
- To which dynasty did Abu Baker belong? – Tughlaqs.
- The Mongols under Tarmashirin reached up to Meerut during the reign of Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq.
- The System of Iqta was started by Iltutmish.
- Who was the first to set up a separate Ariz's (military) department – Balban.
- During the Sultanate period, the most important officials in the village was the headman or the Muqaddam.
- Who founded the Bahmani kingdom? – Alauddin Hasan.
- Which Bhakti saints' biography is contained in the Janm Sakhi? – Guru Nanak.
- Who invented Khayal in music? – Husain Shah Sharqi.
- Who was better known as Shahjehan ? – Khurram.
- The Mansabdar system was initiated alongwith the introduction of Zat and Sawar by Akbar in 1577.
- In the Mughal empire, who were the Walashuhis? – Royal body guards.
- Who refused to join Akbar's Din-i-Ilahi? – Raja Bhagwan Das.
- In the Deccan, Malik Ambar continued to defy Jehangir. The former belonged to the Kingdom of Ahmadnagar.
- The Moti masjid (Delhi) was built by Aurangzeb.
- During the Mughal Age, India had a flourishing foreign trade. Who remarked “Europe bleeded to enrich Asia”? – Thomas Roe.
- Calcutta became a Presidency in 1700.
- Shivaji's government was in accordance with the principles laid down by Chanakya and the Dharmasastras.
- The famous Maratha leader Ahilya Bai belonged to the family of the Holkars.
- From which later Mughal ruler did Nadir Shah get the Koh-i-Noor diamond? Muhammad Shah.
- Which Sikh Gurn started the Masand System whereby his representatives collected money from his followers? – Ram Das.
- Which Sikh Guru prohibited the Hindu practice of Sati? – Amar Das.
- Which Governor-General was compelled to resign over the issue of protective tariff on Manchester goods imported into India? – Northbrook.
- Who usurped the throne of Mysore in 1766? – Tipu Sultan.
- Whose policy of neutrality in respect of Afghanistan has been described as “The Policy of Masterly Inactivity ”? – James Stephen.
- The Munda Rebellion of 1899-1900 was against merchants and money-lenders.
- Recognition was given to Khuntkatti right and begari was banned by the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act of 1908.
- Widespread indebtedness and the immigrant Marwari money-lender were issues involved in the riots of 1875 in Deccan.
- In July 1906, there was a strike of Clerks in the East India railway.
- Who established the Belur Math at Calcutta which became the centre of the Ramakrishna Mission's activities? – Sister Nivedita.
- In 1860 who organised the Sangat Sabha and campaigned against the segregation of Harijans? – Keshab Chandra Sen.
- Who was responsible for setting up Cooperative Societies for Sweepers and Scavengers in Bombay and opened schools for the children of labourers at Ahmedabad? – Bapa Thakkar.
- Who established the Mahila Arya Samaj at Poona to promote women's education and to discourage child marriage? – Pandita Rama Bai.
- Who founded the Indian Labour Party? – B.R. Ambedkar.
- The Simla Conference (1945) was convened by Wavell.
- Which Indus Valley site like Banwali was two cultural phases, pre-Harappan and Harappan? – Kalibangan.
- On their way to India the Aryans first appeared in Iran.
- Who emerged victorious in the Battle of Ten Kings fought on the river parushni? – Sudas.
- Which Righ Vedic god acted as a kind of intermediary between the gods and the people? – Agni.
- Which Veda's contents speak of the beliefs and practices of the non-Aryans? – Atharva Veda.
- The Painted Grey ware pottery, consisting of bowls and dishes, were mostly used by the upper orders.
- Pushan was the later Vedic God of Sudras.
- Besides Indra, which Rig Vedic God lost its importance in later Vedic times? – Agni.
- To which dynasty of the Sangam Age did King Elara belong? – Chola.
- Kaveripattinam was the Chola capital. In the Sangam Age it was called Puhar.
- Mahasanghikas are associated with Buddhism.
- Shortly after the passing away of Buddha, a Buddhist council was held at Rajgir.
- The temple of Lord Gomateshwara is related to Jainism.
- Which sect attained eminence in the 7th century during the rule of Chalukyas of Vatapi and Rashtrakutas of Malkhed? – Digambara sect.
- In the Sangam Age, which Chola ruler is remembered for Vedic sacrifices which he frequently performed? – Nalankilli.
- The Sudarshana Lake was also repaired by Rudradaman. This Lake was made by the Mauryas.
- The earliest evidence of Sati dated A.D. 510, is found at Eran.
- Which ruler was the author of the play Mattavilasa Prahasana? – Narsimhavarman.
- To which dynasty did Vikramaditya belong? – Chalukya.
- Rural areas were managed by village elders called Mahajana in the areas controlled by Chalukyas.
- What was the Mauryan Land revenue demand? – One-fourth to one-sixth of the produce.
- In ancient India, one of the terms for the head who presided over a guild was Jetthaka.
- Which Rock-Edict of Ashoka mentions the name of 5 Greek Kings which prove his close contact with the Greeks ? – Rock Edict XIII.
- Patanjali, the author of Mahabhasya (an elucidation of Panini's grammar), is believed to have been the Chief priest of Pushyamitra Sunga.
- Bhaskaracharya wrote Siddhanta-Siromani. The Subject matter is astrology.
- Which Mauryan King was closely associated with the Jain saint Bhadrabahu? – Chandragupta.
- Who was the first to separate mathematic from astronomy? – Aryabhatta.
- James Princep was the first to decipher inscriptions in 1837 belonging to Ashoka.
- The earliest inscriptions were written in the 3rd century B.C. in Prakrit.
- Most of the coin moulds made of burnt clay that have been discovered belong to the age of the Kushans.
- Nagarjunakonda contains Buddhist monuments and the earliest brahmanical brick temples.
- According to Patanjali, which dynasty established cults for the sake of money? – Mauryas.
- In ancient India, Shudras were first given Land in newly colonised areas by the Mauryas.
- The central deity in the brahmanic pantheon during the Mauryan Age – Shiva.
- The Ettutogai, consisting of 8 anthologies (of which 2,000 poems have survived), was compiled at the third sangam.
- The oldest complete Sanskrit play was written by Bhasa.
- Timur invaded India during the reign of Nasiruddin Mahmud.
- During the decline of Delhi Sultanate, the territory of the same was greatly decreased. About his reign it has been remarked that “the dominion of the lord of the Universe extends from Delhi to Palam”.
- Which Delhi Sultan introduced the branding of horses (dagh) so that soldiers avoided bringing horses of power quality to the master? – Alauddin Khilji.
- Which Delhi sultan tried to organize his army of the decimal system? – Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
- Which Delhi Sultan has as many as 1,80,000 slaves? – Firuz Tughlaq.
- The first ruler in the Delhi Sultanatepay his soldiers fully in cash was Iltutmish.
- Who were the Khuts? – Small landlords.
- Which Delhi Sultan opined that he did not know what was legal or illegal but framed laws according to the needs of the state? – Alauddin Khilji.
- The Vijayanagar Empire disintegrated after 1565.
- The Gajapatis were the rulers of Orissa.
- Akbar made sanads of grant to Hindu maths.
- Under Akbar, Diwan-i-aam was the open darbar.
- Biwi-ka-Makbara is located in Aurangabad.
- Shah Abbas II, the ruler of Iran, insulted the Mughal envoy and passed disparaging remarks against Aurangzeb.
- Which Mughal ruler died as a result of falling from the first floor of a library building? – Humayun.
- Which European power was defeated and practically wiped off from India in the Battle of Bedara? – The Dutch.
- Which British Governor-General is sometimes called “Akbar of East India Company”? – Lord Wellesley.
AGRARIAN CONDITION IN MEDIEVAL INDIA
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-1210) — Old system of land revenue continued. Method of assessment was sharing Land tax 1/10th of the produce.
1. Iltutmish (1211-1235) — Empire was devided into Iqtas for revenue collection & maintenance of law & order. The Khalisa or crown land was placed directly under revenue ministry & the land tax was collected by amils.
2. Balban (1266-86) —Tried to reform the agrarian structure. Appointed Khawaja in the Iqtas to check Muqtas.
3. Alauddin Khilji (1296-1315) — He resorted to actual measurement of land. Fixed the land revenue at 50% of the produce. Collected tax both in cash & kind. Imposed a house tax (garhi) and a grazing tax (Charaj). Created Divan-i-Mustakhraj to enquire into arrears & collect them.
4. Ghiyasuddn Tughlaq (1320-25) — Made `Hasil' or actual turnover as the basis of revenue collection. Ordered that land revenue should not be increased beyond 1/10 ir 1/11 in a year. Land revenue paid by peasants to be 2/5th of the produces.
5. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq (1325-1351) — Created Diwan-i-Kohi to extend cultivation in the doab regions, Fixed land revenue at 50% of produce. Gave agriculture loans Taqavi or Sondhar to the peasants.
6. Firoz Shah Tughluq (1351-1388) — Cancelled all Taqavi loans. Introduced canal and irrigation facilities. Fixed the agricultural tax at 1/10th of the produce. Introduced an irrigation tax of 10% of the produce (sharb).
7. Sikandar Lodi (1488-1517) — Adopted a uniform yard of forty one digits as standard units of measurement (Gaz-i-Sikandri).
8. Ibrahim Lodi (1517-1526) — Ordered land revenue to be taken only in kind.
9. Sher Shah Suri — Introduced the Zabti system. Divided land into good, middling and bad Fised land revenue at 1/3 of average produce. The peasants were given 'Patta' who also signed the qabuliat.
10. Akbar (1556-1605)— Introduced the Dahsala system or Todar Mal Bandobast (1580).
ADMINISTRATION UNDER DELHI SULTANATE
- Sultan (King) — Supreme head of the state and comman- derin-Chief of the army.
- Majlis-i-Khalwat — Privy council, to advise the Sultan but its deci-sion was not binding
- Rai-Zah-i-Dargah — Royal counsellors.
- Bar-i-Khan — Court of Selected nobles.
- Bar-e-am — Hall of public audience. Wazir (Chief minister of the state)Inc-harge of revenue and finance His department was Diwan-i-Wazarat.
- Diwan-i-Arz (Military) — The officer in charge of this department was responsible for recruitment, inspection & payment of troops.
- Diwan-i-Insha — Department of royal correspondence.
- Diwan-i-Risalat — The department dealt with religious matter, endowments, foreign affairs & appeals.
- Sard-in-Sudur — Enforced Islamic laws,supervised charity & sanctioned stipends to Muslim divines and scholars.
- Diwan-i-Ithahaq — Department of pension.
- Diwan-i-Kohi — Department of agriculture created by Muhammad Tughlaq.
- Diwan-i-Ishraf — Audit department.
- Diwan-i-Imarat — Public works department.
- Diwan-i-Khairat — Department of charity created by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Diwan-i-Bandgan — Department of slavery created by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Diwan-i-Siyasat — Department of punishment created by Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
- Diwan-i-Riyasat — Department to keep vigilance over merchants & tradesmen, created by Ala-uddin Khalji.
- Dabir-i-Khas — Ministry of correspondence.
- Barid-i-Mamlak — Chief commissioner of intelligence.
- Mir-i-Imrat — Head of the department of building.
- Qsazi— Head of judicial department. Responsible for enforcement of Islamic law
- Muftis — Expounded the Ko-ranic law
- Muhatsib — Censor of public morals
- Kotwal — Head of police, maintained law & order
- Amir-i-dad — Apprehended criminals
- Mustaufi-i-Mamalik — Auditor general
- Mushrif-i-mamalik — Accountant ge-neral
- Mazumdar — Kept records Khazih Treasurer
- Walis or Muqtis — Provincial head (Suba)
- Amir-i-Sadah — Head of towns
- Amil or Nazim — District head (Shiqq)
- Sultan — King, Head of the state & supreme commander of the armed forces.Akbar asserted that monarchy was a divine gift Centralised power was in his hand.
- Wazir — Next to the emperor, but Akbar abolished the post of all powerful wazir.Nor wazir was only head of the revenue department.
- Diwan — Responsible for all income and expenditure and had control over Khalisa & Jagir land.
- Mir Bakshi — Head of military department & also the nobility They also headed the information and intelligence agencies.
- Mir Saman — Incharge of imperial household and looked after Kark-hanas and harems.
- Sadr — Incharge of charitable and religious endowments They also headed the judiciary (Chief Qazi appointed to this post)
- Naib — Emperor's Deputy-entitled the Waqil.
- Muhtasib — Censor of public morals.
- Kept watch that Muslims followed their religious practices.
- Diwan-i- -Bayutat — Responsible for maintai-nance of roads, govt. buildings etc. Worked under Mir Saman.
- Subahdar or — Nazim or Incharge of provincial or Subas administration.
- Sipahsalar — Appointed by the emperor, usually a high mausabdar
- Faujdar — Incharge of district or Sarkar administration.
- Shiqdar — In Charge of provincial administration.
- Amil or Amulguzara — Collected revenue and patrolled roads at district level.
- Kotwal — Maintained law and order, controlled prices & tried criminals in towns.
- Amir and Qanungo — Revenue officials.
LEADERS OF BHAKTI MOVEMENT
- Ramanuja (1017-1137) — Wrote commentaries on Brahma Sutras, Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishad. Expounded Visistadvaita or qualified monism.
- Madhava (1199-1278) — Broke completely with the Upanishadic doctrine of unity of God and the human soul. Taught Dvaita dualism.
- Ramananda (15th century) (Saguna school) — A disciple of Ramanuja, he was a worshipper of Rama. He taught perfect love for God & human brotherhood.
- Kabir (1440-1510) (Nirguna school) —Disciple of Ramananda, he believed in formless God.
- He was the first to reconcile Hinduism and Islam
- Guru Nanak (1469-1538)(Nirguna school) —He was the founder of Sikh religion. He preached against idol worship, caste system and other superstitions
- Dadu (1544-1603) — (Nirguna School)A disciple of Kabir, he was a supporter of Hindu Muslim unity. His followers were known as Dadu Panthis.
- Chaitanya (1468-1533) — A devotee of Lord Krishna, he was the founder of modern Vaishnavism in Bengal. He popularisd Kirtan.
- Sankaradeva (1449-1569) — Spread Bhakti cult in Assam.
- Vallabhacharya (1479-1531) — Exponent of Krishna cult. He worshipped Krishna under the title Srinathji.
- Surdas (1483-1563) (Saguna school) — A disciple of Vallabhacharya, he showed intense devotion to Radha & Krishna.
- Mirabai (1498-1546) (Saguna school) — Staunch devotee of Lord Krishna, she composed numbers songs & poems in honour of Krishna.
- Tulsidas (1532-1623) — Depicted Rama as the incarnation. He wrote Ramcharitmanas
- Namdeva (1270-13509) — A disciple of Visoba Khechar, he was a devotee of Vithoba (Vishnu).
- Jnanesvara (1275-1296) — Wrote Jnaneswari, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita.
- Eknath (Maharashtra) — Wrote commentary on verses of Bhagavad Gita. A devotee of Vithoba
- Tukaram (Maharashtra) — contemporary of Shivaji. A devotee of Vithal, he founded the Varkau sect. His teachings are contained in abhangar.
- Ram Das (Maharashtra) — Author of Das-abodh, his teachings inspired Shivaji to establish an independent Kingdom.
HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND THEIR BUILDERS (MEDIEVAL INDIA)
- Kailashnath temple (Ellora) — Krishna (Rashtrakhuta)
- Elephanta Caves — Rashtrakutas.
- Brihadeshwara temple (Tanjore) — Rajaraja(Chola) Briha-disvara temple (Gangaik-onda Cholapuram)Ra-jendra Chola. Dancing Shiva(Nataraja Chidambaram) Chola Monolithic status of Gomateshw-ara(Shravanabelagola) Gangas of Mysore.
- Lingraj temple (Bhubaneswar) — The Eastern gangas.
Jagannath temple (Puri) Anant Varman (Eastern Ganga).
- Sun temple — (Konark) Narasimha.
- Kandariya Mahadev temple (Khajuraho) — Chandellas Bundelk-hand.
- Sun temple (Modhera) — Solanki of Gujarat.
- Adinath (Vimla Vasahitemple) Dilwara — Vimala, minister of Bhima.
- Hoyasaleswara — temple Hoysalas (Helebid).
- Kiritstambha (Chittor) — Rana Kumbha.
- Sun temple (Martand) — Karkota dynasty of Kashmir.
- Hazara temple (Hampi) — Krishna devaraya.
- Minakshi temple (Madurai) — Tirumala Nayak.
- Gol Gumbaz (Bijapur) — Md. Adil Shah (1660).
- Char Minar (Hyderabad) — Md Quli Qutb Shah (1591).
- Jama Masjid (Mandu) — Mahmud Khalji.
- Qawat-ul-Islam mosque — Qutb-u-din-Aibak (Delhi).
- Arahai Din Ka Jhopa — Qutb-u-din Aibal (Ajmer).
- Qutb Minar (Delhi) — Aiubak & Illtutmish.
- Alai Darwaza (Delhi) — Alauddin Khalji (the entrance gate to Qutb minar).
- Mahal Hazar Satun (Delhi) — Alauddin Khalji.
- Jamait Khana masjid — Alauddin Khalji (Delhi).
- Tughlaqabad Fort (Delhi) — Alauddin Khalji.
- Hauz Khan (Delhi) — (Pleasure resort) Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
- Jamma Masjid (Sambhal) — Babur.
- Dinpanah — (city at Delhi) Human-yun.
- Sasaram tomb (Bihar) — Sher Shah.
- Purana Qila (Delhi) — Sher Shah.
- Qila-Kuhna masjid — (within Purana Qiala Delhi) Sher Shah.
- Humayun's tomb (Delhi) — Akbar.
- Agra fort — Akbar.
- Lahore fort — Akbar.
- Fatehpur Sikri — Akbar.
- Buland Darwaja — Akbar.
- Red Fort (Delhi) — Shah Jahan.
- Jama Masjid (Delhi) — Shah Jahan.
- Moti Masjid (Agra) — Shah Jahan.
- Taj Mahal (Agra) — Shah Jahan
- Moti Masjid (Delhi) — Aurangzeb.
- Badsahi mosque (Lahore) — Aurangzeb.
IMPORTANT BATTLES OF MEDIEVAL INDIA BATTLES RESULTS
- First Battle of Waihind (1001-02) — Mahmud Ghazni defeated Jayapala.
- Second Battle of Waihind (1008 AD) — Mahmud Ghani defeated the Hindu confederacy under Anandpala.
- First Battle of Tarain (1191 AD) — Prithviraj Chauhan ruler of Ajmer defeated Muhammad Ghori.
- Second Battle Tarain (1192 AD) — Muhammadf Ghori defeated Prithvi raj Chauhan of Ajmer.
- Battle of Chandawara (1194 AD) — Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaichand, the ruler of Kanauj.
- Fisrt Battle of Panipat (1526 AD) —Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
- Battle of Kanwa (1527 AD) — Babur defeated Rana Sanga.