Evolution of Transport:
Before the invention of the wheel, the only means of transportation was walking. For transporting goods, people used animals like donkeys, horses, mules, elephants, oxen, sled dogs, and even bison. Boats were also used as a means of transportation on water. The earliest boats were simple logs of wood with a hollow cavity.
The oldest wheel was discovered in Mesopotamia, and is believed to be over 5,500 years old. Fixed wheels for carts were invented around 3500 BC, according to some historians. After the invention of the wheel, man started using animals to pull vehicles that moved on wheels, and thus, bullock carts and chariots came into existence. Till the 19th century, most forms of transport used only animals.
The bicycle was invented in the late 18th century bicycles. The first bicycles did not have brakes, though. It was up to the rider to the control the speed of the bicycle! Later on, motors were fitted to bicycles, and thus, mopeds came into existence. Further research and development led to the invention of the motors car.
The steam engine and the rail road were invented in the 19th century. Apart from these, motorized boats and ships were used as a means of water transport. Roads, rail road and water remained the major means of transport for a very long time.
The Wright brothers invented the airplane and gave the world another means of transport - airways. In his effort to explore his universe, man even stepped into space and invented the spaceship to travel in space.
There are various means of transport, such as road, rail, water and airways. The mode of transport can be chosen, usually depending upon the distance to be travelled, but sometimes also upon how fast you want to get to your destination.
Measuring Length and Distance:
Various means of measurement, such as the palms, fingers, arm length and feet, were used to measure length and distance before standardized systems were introduced. Standards needed to be set to ensure consistency and to standardize measurements. Several systems were devised, but almost the entire world now follows the metric system.
The base measurement for the pyramids is the cubit, which was formulated by the Egyptians. A cubit was measured on the arm, from the point where the elbow bends, to the tip of the middle finger. One cubit is equal to 18 inches. However, the inch was invented by the Romans.
In order to avoid confusion in measurements, the French created in 1970 the metric system, which is a standard for measurement. A further development to ensure uniformity measurement of lengths and distances, and other quantities, was a standard of measurement called the International System of Units or SI.
The SI unit of length is the metre, and is denoted by the small letter 'm'. This is the basic unit of length.
1 metre =100 centimetres
1 centimetre = 10 millimetres
10 millimetres = 1 centimetre
Large distances are measured in kilometres, and 1 km=1000 m. The length and type of an object determines the kind of measuring tool one can use.
Motion and Measurement of Distances:
Walking was the first the means of transportation. Boats were used to transport goods on water. Early boats were simple logs of wood with a hollow cavity. The invention of the wheel revolutionized transport. Wheel design was improved over thousands of years.
Till the beginning of the 19th century, people depended on animals for transportation of goods. Animals were used to pull vehicles that moved on wheels. Popular vehicles, like the bicycle, were invented in the late 18th century. The first bicycles made did not have any brakes. It was up to the rider to control the speed or stop the bicycle with his feet.
An exciting development was the fitting of motors on to bicycles. The steam engine and the railroad, too, were invented in the 19th century. The invention of the steam engine introduced a new source of power for transportation. Rail tracks were made for steam engine-driven carriages and wagons to transport goods.
The Wright brothers invented the airplane, and that is when the era of flying began. Electric trains, monorails, supersonic aeroplanes and spacecraft are some of the contributions of the 20th century. One of the most exciting developments in travel is the flying train. It's referred to as the flying train because it doesn't touch the rails as it moves. Huge magnets keep the train suspended in air.
Before the metrics for measurement were developed, people used several different means to calculate distance and length. For instance, a carpenter would measure the length of wood using his palms, fingers or arm. Similarly, a cloth merchant would measure the length of cloth against an outstretched arm. To standardize measurements and ensure consistency, standards needed to be set.
Foot length or palm length were commonly used as non-standard units of measurement. Historians say that the Egyptians formulated the cubit. The cubit was the base measurement for the pyramids. The point from where your elbow bends to the tip of the middle finger of your outstretched hand is the cubit.
However, scientists all over the world felt the need for uniformity in the standards for the measurement of lengths and distances. Today, they all use a standard of measurement called the International System of Units or SI units. The SI unit for length is the metre, and is denoted by the small letter 'm.' For measuring large distances, as per SI standards, we use the kilometre, denoted by two small letters 'km.' One kilometre is equal to 1000 metre.
Measuring Length and its Accuracy:
A ruler is used to measure the length of an object. It is also used to measure the length of a straight line.
A ruler is used to measure the length of an object. It is also used to measure the length of a straight line. A non-stretchable string or thread is used to measure the length of a curved line.
Procedure to Measure the Length of an Object (or) a Straight Line:
Procedure to Measure the Length of a Straight Line Using a Damaged Ruler:
Whatever method you use, always look at the ruler with the eyes directly in the line with the reading and not in an oblique way to obtain the readings accurately.
Procedure to Measure the Length of a Curved Line:
To measure the length of any object, place a ruler along the edge of that object with the zero mark of the ruler placed at one end of the object. Then, note the reading on the ruler at the other end of the object. This gives the measure of the object's length. When noting the reading on a ruler, you should look at it with the eyes directly above the reading, and not in an oblique way. Otherwise, you will not be able to note the reading accurately. If the zero mark of the ruler does not coincide with the first end of the object, then the difference between the readings at the two ends gives the length of the object.
The circumference of a cap forms a curved line. To measure the length of a curved line, tie a knot on one end of a piece of thread. This becomes the starting point for measurement. Then stretch the thread along the curved line, keeping it in place with your fingers and thumb. Keep stretching the thread along the curved line until you reach the end of the line. Use a pen to make a mark on the thread at the point where it reaches the other end of the curved line. Now, place this thread along a metre scale and measure the length between the knot and the marked point. This gives you the length of the curved line, which is the edge or the circumference of the cap.
Rest and Motion:
When a body remains in one position for a long time, it is said to be at rest.
When a body remains in one position for a long time, it is said to be at rest. For example, the chairs of the dining table are at rest unless and until they are moved, and the flower vase, table, and the blackboard in the class room are all at the position of rest.
The act, process or state of the change in place or position of a body with respect to time and relative to the observer is said to be motion. For example the blades of a rotating fan, the hands of a working wall clock, a moving car, a spinning top and satellites are all in motion.
Rest and motion are relative terms:
A body seems to be at rest with respect to one object, but may appear to be in motion with respect to some other object. For example, a person on a railway platform is at rest with respect to another person on the same platform, but is in motion with reference to a person looking at him from a train crossing that platform. Similarly, a passenger sitting in the train will appear at rest to another passenger on the same train.
Types of Motion:
The various types of motion are:
Rectilinear motion is the motion of an object that moves in a straight line. For example, a train moving on a track, a parade, coins tossed in the air are all in rectilinear motion.
Circular motion is the motion of an object that moves at a fixed distance from a fixed point. Here, all objects rotate in circular motion. So, circular motion is motion in which the body traverses a circular path. The hands of a clock, a merry-go-round, the blades of a fan, the wheel of a moving vehicle, satellites, a spinning top, are all good examples of circular motion.
Periodic motion is motion that repeats itself at regular intervals of time. Every body executing circular motion can be said to be executing periodic motion. For example, the pendulum of a wall clock moves at regular intervals, the bells in a church, a bouncing ball, a vibrating string and a swinging cradle are all in periodic motion.
Sometimes an object can display combinations of different types of motion:
Rectilinear motion is the motion of a body in a straight line. Examples of bodies in rectilinear motion are sprinters in a race along a straight track, the march-past of soldiers in a parade, and a bullet fired from a gun.
When a body moves along a circular path, it is said to be in circular motion. Examples of bodies in circular motion are the rotating blades of a fan, children playing on a merry-go-round, and the hands of a clock.
When the motion of a body repeats itself after a certain time period, it is called periodic motion. The motion of a pendulum in a pendulum clock, and the motion of needle in a sewing machine are some examples of periodic motion.