1) Who are Nomads?
Answer:Nomads are the people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living.
2) Who were Guyar Bakarwals?
Answer: Gujjar Bakarwals are nomadic tribes of Jammu and Kashmir, who are great' herders of goat and sheep.
3) What is a 'kafila'?
Answer: Kafila is a group of several households who move together for a journey.
4) Name the shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, who have cycle of seasonal movement.
Answer:Gaddi Shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.
5) What is 'Bhabar'?
Answer: It is a dry forested area below the foothills of Garhwal and Kumaun.
6) What does 'BugyaI' mean?
Answer:Vast meadows in the high mountains.
7) Name the pastoral communities of Himalayas known for cyclical movement for the pastures.
Answer: Bhotiyar, Sheepar and Kinnaurs.
8) Who were 'Dhangars'?
Answer:'Dhangars' were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.
9) What were the main occupations of 'Dhangars'?
Answer:Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and still others were buffalo herders.
10) Which pastoral tribes live in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh?
Answer:The Gollas herded cattle, The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets.
11) What were their main occupations?
Answer:They lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land, did animal rearing, wove blankets and also engaged in a variety of petty trades and took care of their needs.
12) Who are 'Banjaras'?
Answer:Banjaras are well-known group of graziers. They are found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
13) Which pastoral nomads live in the deserts of Rajasthan?
Answer:Raikas live in the deserts of Rajasthan.
14) What are the main occupations of Raikas?
Answer:Raikas combined a range of different activities-cultivation, trade, and herding to make their living.
15) How did the life of nomadic pastoralists change dramatically?
Answer: (i) Their grazing grounds shrank. (ii) Their movements were regulated. (iii) Revenue was increased.
16) Give one advantage of changing grazing lands into cultivated farms by British in India.
Answer:Land revenue was one of the main sources of income, by expanding cultivation it would increase its revenue collection.
17) What were 'Waste Land Rules'?
Answer: By these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected individuals who were granted various concessions and were encouraged to settle in these lands.
18) Which forests were declared 'Reserved Forests'?
Answer: The forests which produced commercially valuable timber like 'deodar' or 'sal' were declared 'Reserved'. No pastoralist was allowed to access these forests.
19) Which forests were classified as 'Protected Forests'?
Answer: In these forests some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movements were severely restricted.
20) What kind of permit was given to the pastoralists by the forest department?
Answer:The permit specified the periods in which these pastoralists could live legally within a forest. If they overstayed they were made to pay fines.
21) What was the Criminal Tribes Act?
Answer:(i) It was passed by the colonial govt. in India. (ii) By this Act many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes. (iii) These tribes were not allowed to move out without a permit.
22) What was the source of taxation for the colonial government?
Answer:Taxes were imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods and even on animals of the pastoralists.
23) Where have Raikas migrated after the partition of India?
Answer: In recent years they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on agricultural fields after the harvests are cut. This is the time that the fields need manure that the animals provide.
24) Name the pastoral communities of Africa.
Answer: Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Simali, Bosan and Turkana are some of the pastoral communities of Africa.
25) What do these African pastoral communities do for a living?
Answer: They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys and they sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool. Some also earn through trade and transport.
26) Which areas were covered under Maasailand before colonial times?
Answer:Maasailand stretched over a vast area from North Korea to the Steppes of northern Tanzania.
27) How was Maasailand divided by the colonial powers?
Answer: In 1885, Maasailand was divided into two international boundaries into two areas called as British Kenya and German Tanganyika.
28) What was the condition of Maasai after White settlements in their grazing lands?
Answer: (i) They were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania. (ii) They were confined now to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
29) Name the national parks set up in place of grazing lands by colonial powers.
Answer:(i) Samburu National Park in Kenya (ii) Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.
30) What does Maasai mean?
Answer:The title Maasai is derived from the word 'Maa'. Maasai means 'My People'.
31) What were the social categories into which Maasai society was divided?
Answer: Maasai society was divided into two social categories ? (i)Elders
32) Who were called 'The Elders' in Maasai society?
Answer: The Elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes.
33) Who were called 'The Warriors' among Maasai community?
Answer:The Warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe.
34) What was the significance of Raiding in Maasai Society?
Answer:Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was arrested.
35) How could warriors prove their manliness?
Answer: Young men came to be recognized as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars.
36) Who are nomads? Give an example.
Answer:(i) Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. (ii) In many parts of India, we can see nomadic pastroalists on the move with their needs of cattle. (iii) For example, Guj[jar Bakarwals ofJammu and Kashmir, Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh, Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaon, Dhangars of Maharashtra, etc.
37) Describe the seasonal movement of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh.
Answer: (i) They spent their winter in the low hills of the Shiwalik range, grazing their flock in the scrub forests. (ii) By April, they moved north and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. (iii) When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them moved to higher mountain meadows. (iv) By September, they began their return movement and descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground, the Shiwalik hills.
38) How did the Gujyar cattle herders of Garhwal and Kumaon go in search for pastures?
Answer:(i) The Gujjar cattle herders came down to the dry forests of the bhabar in winter and went up to high meadows?the bugyals, in summer. (ii) Many of them were originally from Jammu and came to the UP hills in the 19th century in search of good pastures. (iii) This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas.
39) Describe the lifestyle of the pastoralists of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Answer: (i) Pastoralist tribes such as the Gollas herded cattle, while the Kurumas and the Kurubas reared sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. (ii) They lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land, engaged in a variety of petty trades and took care of their herds. (iii) In the dry season, they moved to the coastal tracts and left when the rain came. So, their seasonal rhythm was during the monsoons and the dry season.
40) What do you know about the Banjaras of North India?
Answer: (i) They move in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. (ii) In search of good pastureland for their cattle, they moved over long distances. (iii) They sold plough cattle and other goods to the villagers in exchange for grain and fodder.
41) How were 'Wasteland Rules' enacted?
Answer: (i) To the colonial officials, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. So, it was seen as 'wasteland' that had to be brought under cultivation.
(ii) So, 'Wasteland Rules' were enacted in various parts of the country. By these rules, uncultivated lands were taken over and given to selected individuals.
(iii) These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headmen of villages to monitor cultivation. So, the expansion of cultivation meant the decline of pastures for the pastoralists which posed huge problems for them.
42) Why did the colonial government in India pass the Criminal Tribes Act?
Answer: In 1871, the colonial government passed the Criminal Tribes Act.
(i) The colonial government wanted to rule over a settled population. Such a population was easy to identify and control.
(ii) Those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding; and those who were nomadic were considered to be criminals. (iii) By this Act, many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes.
43) How were the criminal tribes controlled by the British government?
Answer: (i) Once this Act came into force, these communities which were nomadic, now expected to live only in notified village settlements.
(ii) They were not allowed to move out without a permit.
(iii) The village police was also told to keep a continuous watch on them. By this Act, nomadic tribes learnt to live a settled life.
44) How were taxes collected by the British from the pastoralists?
(i) Tax was imposed on land, canal water, salt, trade goods and even on animals.
(ii) Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures.
(iii) The right to collect the tax was auctioned out to contractors. These contractors tried to extract as high a tax as they could, to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could within a year. Later on, governments began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists.
45) How did the changes brought about by colonial rule affect the lives of pastoralists?
Answer: (i) When grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields, the available area of pastureland declined. Due to reservation of forests, cattle herders could no longer freely let their cattle graze in the forests.
(ii) As pasturelands disappeared under the plough, the existing animal stock had to feed on whatever grazing land remained. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures, which did not allow time for the natural restoration of vegetation growth.
(iii) This ultimately led to shortage of forests for animals and deterioration of animal stock. Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines.
46) How did the pastoralists react to the changes brought about by colonial rule?
Answer: (i) Since the new boundaries between India and Pakistan were drawn, it stopped their movement. So they started looking for new places to go. In recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep can graze on the agricultural fields after the harvests are cut.
(ii) Over the years, some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life. Some became settled peasants, while others became traders. When pastoralists lost their cattle and sheep, they started working on the fields in small towns.
(iii) When pastureland was closed to them in one place, they changed the direction of their movement, reduced the size of the herd and combined their pastoral activity with other activities to supplement their income and adapted to the changes in the modern world.
47) What restrictions were imposed on the pastoralists by the colonial government?
Answer: (i) Pastoral groups were also forced to live within the confines of special reserves. These groups could not move out without special permit. It was difficult to get permit without trouble and harassment. Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished.
(ii) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the markets in White areas. They were also prohibited from participating in any form of trade. White settlers never wanted to have any contact with the Blacks but it was not possible since they depended on Black labour for working in the mines, building roads and towns, etc.
48) How does drought affect the life of pastoralists? Explain
Answer: (i) Drought affects the life of Pastoralists everywhere.
(ii) When rains fail and pastures are dry, cattle are likely to starve unless they can be moved to areas where forge is available. That is why traditionally, pastoralists are nomadic, they move from place to place. This nomadism allows them to survive bad times and avoid crises.
49) How were the Maasais restricted to a confined area by the colonial people?
Answer: (i) Maasais were bound to a fixed area, confined within a reserve and prohibited from moving in search of pastures.
(ii) They were not allowed to the best grazing lands and were forced to live in semi-arid regions that were prone to frequent droughts.
(iii) As a result, a large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation and diseases during the drought years. The frequent bad years led to a steady decline of the livestock of pastoralists.
50) How did poor pastoralists live without their livestock?
Answer: (i) Poor pastoralists who depended only on their livestock did not have resources to tide over bad times. In times of war and famine, they lost nearly everything. (ii) They had to go looking for work in towns.
(iii) Some managed a living by working as charcoal burners or by doing other odd jobs. The lucky ones got more regular work in road or building construction.