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Summary: Coal & Petroleum Notes | Study Science Class 8 - Class 8

Document Description: Summary: Coal & Petroleum for Class 8 2022 is part of Science Class 8 preparation. The notes and questions for Summary: Coal & Petroleum have been prepared according to the Class 8 exam syllabus. Information about Summary: Coal & Petroleum covers topics like Introduction and Summary: Coal & Petroleum Example, for Class 8 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Summary: Coal & Petroleum.

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Table of contents
Introduction
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Introduction

There are two types of resources:

  • Inexhaustible Natural Resources (Renewable sources of energy)
  • Exhaustible Natural Resources (Non-renewable sources of energy)

Inexhaustible Natural Resources

  • They are renewable sources of energy that are replenished at a rate faster than that at which they are consumed.
  • These resources are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted by human activities.

Examples

  • Tidal energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy.
  • Solar energy: Solar cooker, solar water heater (very efficient for small scale electricity production)
  • Geothermal energy: Heat energy inside the earth
  • Nuclear energy: Not dependent on solar energy, never-ending source, very efficient source, more environment friendly.

Exhaustible Natural Resources

They are non-renewable sources of energy are those that are consumed at a rate faster than that at which they are replenished. The amount of these resources in nature is limited which can be exhausted by human activities.

Examples

  • Forests, wildlife, minerals, coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.
  • Fossil fuels: Coal, petroleum and natural gas

Advantages of using fossils fuels

(i) Easy availability

(ii) Generate heat that is easily converted into electricity.


  • Coal, petroleum, and natural gas were formed from the dead remains of living organisms. Hence, they are known as fossil fuels
  • Resources such as coal and petroleum are limited. Burning of such fuels is the major cause of air pollution. Therefore, these fuels should be used only when necessary.
  • Burning of fossil fuels releases gases like carbon dioxide which cause greenhouse effect.
Coal

Summary: Coal & Petroleum Notes | Study Science Class 8 - Class 8

  • It is a fossil fuels which is hard solid and black in colour.

Story of Coal

  • Due to natural processes, the dense forests got buried under the soil.
  • Under high temperature and high pressure, dead plants got slowly converted to coal.
  • The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonisation.

Uses of Coal

  • It is used as fuel to cook food. Earlier, it was used in railway engines to produce steam.
  • It is used in thermal power stations to generate electricity.
  • Coke, coal tar, and coal gas are the products of coal.
Products from coal

Coke

  • It is a tough, porous and black substance.
  • It is the pure form of carbon and is used in the extraction of steel and many other metals.

Coal tar

Summary: Coal & Petroleum Notes | Study Science Class 8 - Class 8

  • It is black, thick liquid with unpleasant smell.
  • It is the mixture of about 200 substances.
  • The products obtained from coal tar are used as starting materials for dyes, drugs, paints, perfumes, etc.

Coal gas

  • It is obtained during the processing of coal to obtain coke.
  • It is used as a fuel in many industries situated near the coal processing plants.
Petroleum

Summary: Coal & Petroleum Notes | Study Science Class 8 - Class 8

  • Petroleum was formed from the dead organisms present in the sea.
  • Petrol, diesel, kerosene, paraffin wax, lubricating oil, and petroleum gas are the products of petroleum.
  • The process of separating various constituents of petroleum is known as refining.
  • Refining of petroleum is done in fractionating column.
  • Components with higher boiling points are collected at the bottom of the fractionating column.
  • Components with lower boiling points are collected at the top of the column.

Petroleum and its uses
Summary: Coal & Petroleum Notes | Study Science Class 8 - Class 8

  • Complete combustion of hydrocarbons lead to formation of carbon dioxide and water, while incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons yield carbon monoxide and water.
  • Carbon dioxide as well as carbon monoxide are responsible for pollution in our environment.
  • The test used to determine the amount of carbon monoxide in vehicle's exhaust gases is known as emission test.
  • Gas analyzer is used in detection of carbon monoxide in exhaust gases.
  • Petroleum is a natural resource

Summary: Coal & Petroleum Notes | Study Science Class 8 - Class 8

  • The formation of petroleum takes place over a period of millions of years.
  • Petroleum reserves are limited i.e. they are found only in a few places on the Earth.
  • The ever increasing population has further increased the demand for petroleum and its products.
  • In India, the Petroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) advises people on the various methods that can be adopted to conserve petrol/diesel.
Cracking
  • Heating higher alkanes to sufficiently high temperatures in absence of oxygen, in order to obtain lower hydrocarbons is known as cracking or pyrolysis.
Natural Gas
  • Natural gas is formed from dead organisms which decompose in the absence of air under conditions of high pressure and temperature.
  • It is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas (CNG). It is used as a fuel for vehicles because it is a cleaner fuel (less polluting).
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