Sustainable Design Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

Computer Science Engineering (CSE) : Sustainable Design Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture
Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC)
Conclusione
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Page 2


Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture
Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC)
Conclusione
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture 
One cannot ignore the traditional architecture that flourished around the world in harmony with environment. Indian 
subcontinent produced some of the finest architectural marvels in tune with the environmental sustainability. The traditional 
architecture has popularly utilized local indigenous material such as- stone, clay and timber, which are easy available. 
Depending on the geographical condition the use of natural material varied.
Following are some of the traditional architecture in the Indian subcontinent-
Northeast Region 
In the Northeast region due to heavy rain
Plate 5A Northeast Bamboo House 5B Bamboo House under construction 5C Village Meeting
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav= 
on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N& 
tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#imgrc=8yDMLOxE2sIIiM%3A%3B7zr8uoPTkSwAfM%3Bhttp%25 
3A%252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Fcontent%252Fecodev%252F1334126782.jpg%3Bhttp%253A% 
252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Feco-development%252Ftraditional-housing-best-for-quake-prone-nor 
th-east_160%252F%3B612%3B459 ; April 8, 2013; 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Page 3


Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture
Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC)
Conclusione
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture 
One cannot ignore the traditional architecture that flourished around the world in harmony with environment. Indian 
subcontinent produced some of the finest architectural marvels in tune with the environmental sustainability. The traditional 
architecture has popularly utilized local indigenous material such as- stone, clay and timber, which are easy available. 
Depending on the geographical condition the use of natural material varied.
Following are some of the traditional architecture in the Indian subcontinent-
Northeast Region 
In the Northeast region due to heavy rain
Plate 5A Northeast Bamboo House 5B Bamboo House under construction 5C Village Meeting
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav= 
on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N& 
tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#imgrc=8yDMLOxE2sIIiM%3A%3B7zr8uoPTkSwAfM%3Bhttp%25 
3A%252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Fcontent%252Fecodev%252F1334126782.jpg%3Bhttp%253A% 
252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Feco-development%252Ftraditional-housing-best-for-quake-prone-nor 
th-east_160%252F%3B612%3B459 ; April 8, 2013; 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Northeast Region of India receives plenty of rain. Naturally the houses are built with sustainable material. Bamboo is one of the 
most important natural materials that grow in plenty in the Northeast region. Bamboo and cane withstands high moisture and 
water. Because of the heavy rainfall the region heavily depends on bamboo for their survival. The houses (plate 5A-5C) are 
constructed above the ground level. It is elevated above the ground (plate 5B) with the help of timber and bamboo construction 
material. The space bellow the house is used for the shelter of the domesticated animals and other storage material. 
Interestingly similar traditional structures are found all over China, Japan, Bali and other Pacific islands. Such designs continue 
to practice in the rural areas. Hence, it carries strong sustainable design mechanism harmonizing with the local conditions. 
Household Sustainable Design
Plate 6A Products made of Grass 6B Bamboo & Grass 6C Bamboo Furniture
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav 
=on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa= 
N&tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Traditional+Bamboo+furnitu 
re2.646798.0.648713.9.9.0.0.0.0.327.1306.4j0j3j2.9.0...0.0...1c.1.8.img.qawd8bsVkFc&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&b 
vm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&fp=dd0c855b776f8900&biw=1333&bih=615&imgrc=_79KbbVXgKuBLM%3A%3BU 
Jp0LSu7MNI3M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.deccanherald.com%252Fimages%252Feditor_images1 
%252F2012%252F01%252F05%252Fcanecraft350.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.deccanherald.co 
m%252Fcontent%252F216947%252FF%3B350%3B253; April 3, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_3.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:19 PM]
Page 4


Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture
Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC)
Conclusione
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture 
One cannot ignore the traditional architecture that flourished around the world in harmony with environment. Indian 
subcontinent produced some of the finest architectural marvels in tune with the environmental sustainability. The traditional 
architecture has popularly utilized local indigenous material such as- stone, clay and timber, which are easy available. 
Depending on the geographical condition the use of natural material varied.
Following are some of the traditional architecture in the Indian subcontinent-
Northeast Region 
In the Northeast region due to heavy rain
Plate 5A Northeast Bamboo House 5B Bamboo House under construction 5C Village Meeting
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav= 
on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N& 
tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#imgrc=8yDMLOxE2sIIiM%3A%3B7zr8uoPTkSwAfM%3Bhttp%25 
3A%252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Fcontent%252Fecodev%252F1334126782.jpg%3Bhttp%253A% 
252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Feco-development%252Ftraditional-housing-best-for-quake-prone-nor 
th-east_160%252F%3B612%3B459 ; April 8, 2013; 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Northeast Region of India receives plenty of rain. Naturally the houses are built with sustainable material. Bamboo is one of the 
most important natural materials that grow in plenty in the Northeast region. Bamboo and cane withstands high moisture and 
water. Because of the heavy rainfall the region heavily depends on bamboo for their survival. The houses (plate 5A-5C) are 
constructed above the ground level. It is elevated above the ground (plate 5B) with the help of timber and bamboo construction 
material. The space bellow the house is used for the shelter of the domesticated animals and other storage material. 
Interestingly similar traditional structures are found all over China, Japan, Bali and other Pacific islands. Such designs continue 
to practice in the rural areas. Hence, it carries strong sustainable design mechanism harmonizing with the local conditions. 
Household Sustainable Design
Plate 6A Products made of Grass 6B Bamboo & Grass 6C Bamboo Furniture
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav 
=on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa= 
N&tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Traditional+Bamboo+furnitu 
re2.646798.0.648713.9.9.0.0.0.0.327.1306.4j0j3j2.9.0...0.0...1c.1.8.img.qawd8bsVkFc&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&b 
vm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&fp=dd0c855b776f8900&biw=1333&bih=615&imgrc=_79KbbVXgKuBLM%3A%3BU 
Jp0LSu7MNI3M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.deccanherald.com%252Fimages%252Feditor_images1 
%252F2012%252F01%252F05%252Fcanecraft350.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.deccanherald.co 
m%252Fcontent%252F216947%252FF%3B350%3B253; April 3, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_3.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:19 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Use of local straw and grass (plate 6A-6B) are quite popular in the Northeast Region. Light weight and elastic material have been 
regularly used in their household chores (carrying bags). Similarly bamboo has provided wide range of household design varieties. 
Bamboo is popularly used for various furniture design (plate 6C) including chair, table, sofa, etc. 
Exercise: Sustainable Design encourages recycling material. Create household 
product out of waste material that we throw away from home.
Sustainable Kerala Architecture
 
 
 
Plate 7A Kerala Village House 7B Rural Housing 7C Boat House
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?q=traditional+kerala+house+architecture&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u& 
source=univ&sa=X&ei=J0ZiUavcFoSGrAfDq4HQDw&ved=0CDcQsAQ&biw=1333&bih615#imgrc=isUjKqBdtXy9 
zM%3A%3BsB9fgce4k466qM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.keralatoursbackwaters.com%252Fimages%2 
52Fpadmanabhapuramb.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.keralatoursbackwaters.com%252Fculture%252 
Farchitecture.php%3B500%3B333; April 8, 2013) 
The state of Kerala is well-known for their typical architecture design. It receives heavy rainfall. Instead of use of bamboo Kerala 
uses coconut palm trees and leaves for architectural constructions along with other household products. The roof is covered with 
terracotta tiles with sloped-tiles (plate 7A- 7B). Majority of the houses do not use typical industrial material. Instead they construct 
with coconut trees-trunk and roofing with baked titles. Kerala having plenty of back-water uses boats for communication. 
Houseboat constructed with the indigenous material for tourism earns significant amount of revenue. The designs reflect strong 
sustainable design solutions that have lasted for centuries. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_4.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:19 PM]
Page 5


Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture
Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC)
Conclusione
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture 
One cannot ignore the traditional architecture that flourished around the world in harmony with environment. Indian 
subcontinent produced some of the finest architectural marvels in tune with the environmental sustainability. The traditional 
architecture has popularly utilized local indigenous material such as- stone, clay and timber, which are easy available. 
Depending on the geographical condition the use of natural material varied.
Following are some of the traditional architecture in the Indian subcontinent-
Northeast Region 
In the Northeast region due to heavy rain
Plate 5A Northeast Bamboo House 5B Bamboo House under construction 5C Village Meeting
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav= 
on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa=N& 
tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#imgrc=8yDMLOxE2sIIiM%3A%3B7zr8uoPTkSwAfM%3Bhttp%25 
3A%252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Fcontent%252Fecodev%252F1334126782.jpg%3Bhttp%253A% 
252F%252Fwww.infrawindow.com%252Feco-development%252Ftraditional-housing-best-for-quake-prone-nor 
th-east_160%252F%3B612%3B459 ; April 8, 2013; 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:18 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Northeast Region of India receives plenty of rain. Naturally the houses are built with sustainable material. Bamboo is one of the 
most important natural materials that grow in plenty in the Northeast region. Bamboo and cane withstands high moisture and 
water. Because of the heavy rainfall the region heavily depends on bamboo for their survival. The houses (plate 5A-5C) are 
constructed above the ground level. It is elevated above the ground (plate 5B) with the help of timber and bamboo construction 
material. The space bellow the house is used for the shelter of the domesticated animals and other storage material. 
Interestingly similar traditional structures are found all over China, Japan, Bali and other Pacific islands. Such designs continue 
to practice in the rural areas. Hence, it carries strong sustainable design mechanism harmonizing with the local conditions. 
Household Sustainable Design
Plate 6A Products made of Grass 6B Bamboo & Grass 6C Bamboo Furniture
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&q=Traditional+Bamboo+houses+in+Northeast+India&bav 
=on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&biw=1333&bih=615&um=1&ie=UTF8&tbm=isch&source=og&sa= 
N&tab=wi&ei=vEFiUdihKs6WrgeCh4GQBQ#um=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Traditional+Bamboo+furnitu 
re2.646798.0.648713.9.9.0.0.0.0.327.1306.4j0j3j2.9.0...0.0...1c.1.8.img.qawd8bsVkFc&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&b 
vm=bv.44770516,d.bmk&fp=dd0c855b776f8900&biw=1333&bih=615&imgrc=_79KbbVXgKuBLM%3A%3BU 
Jp0LSu7MNI3M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.deccanherald.com%252Fimages%252Feditor_images1 
%252F2012%252F01%252F05%252Fcanecraft350.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.deccanherald.co 
m%252Fcontent%252F216947%252FF%3B350%3B253; April 3, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_3.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:19 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Use of local straw and grass (plate 6A-6B) are quite popular in the Northeast Region. Light weight and elastic material have been 
regularly used in their household chores (carrying bags). Similarly bamboo has provided wide range of household design varieties. 
Bamboo is popularly used for various furniture design (plate 6C) including chair, table, sofa, etc. 
Exercise: Sustainable Design encourages recycling material. Create household 
product out of waste material that we throw away from home.
Sustainable Kerala Architecture
 
 
 
Plate 7A Kerala Village House 7B Rural Housing 7C Boat House
(Source: https://www.google.co.in/search?q=traditional+kerala+house+architecture&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u& 
source=univ&sa=X&ei=J0ZiUavcFoSGrAfDq4HQDw&ved=0CDcQsAQ&biw=1333&bih615#imgrc=isUjKqBdtXy9 
zM%3A%3BsB9fgce4k466qM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.keralatoursbackwaters.com%252Fimages%2 
52Fpadmanabhapuramb.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.keralatoursbackwaters.com%252Fculture%252 
Farchitecture.php%3B500%3B333; April 8, 2013) 
The state of Kerala is well-known for their typical architecture design. It receives heavy rainfall. Instead of use of bamboo Kerala 
uses coconut palm trees and leaves for architectural constructions along with other household products. The roof is covered with 
terracotta tiles with sloped-tiles (plate 7A- 7B). Majority of the houses do not use typical industrial material. Instead they construct 
with coconut trees-trunk and roofing with baked titles. Kerala having plenty of back-water uses boats for communication. 
Houseboat constructed with the indigenous material for tourism earns significant amount of revenue. The designs reflect strong 
sustainable design solutions that have lasted for centuries. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_4.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:19 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 15 : Sustainable Design
 
Lecture 40 : Sustainable Design and Traditional Architecture, Northeast Region, Household Sustainable Design, Sustainable 
Kerala Architecture, Rajasthan Architecture, Persian Chahar Bag Garden Architecture (550 BC), Conclusion 
 
Rajasthan Architecture 
Rajasthan has contributed significantly in the history of Indian architecture.
 
Plate 8A City Palace, Jaipur 8B Stepwell (Baori), Bundi, Rajasthan 1699 AD 
(Source : https://www.google.co.in/search?q=traditional+rajasthani+architecture&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo 
=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=vkhiUamOLszrrQfwk4EI&sqi=2&ved=0CC0QsAQ&biw=1333&bih=615#imgrc 
=WT00SrSPH5DHaM%3A%3BYk9dEB2QFNU3GM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.luxurytripsindia. 
com%252Findiatouritineraries%252Fimages%252Fcitypalacejaipur.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fww 
w.luxurytripsindia.com%252Fluxury-trips-india%252Fmemorable-india-vacation.html%3B326%3B320; April 8, 2013) 
http://architecturalnews.infrawindow.com/features/baoris-of-rajasthan-a-sonnet-in-stone/; April 8, 2013) 
In contrast to the Northeast and Kerala region Rajasthan does not experience such heavy rains. In general Rajasthan region 
has limited rainfall. The indigenous materials, stones of different types are used in every construction. Constructions of palace 
buildings (plate 8A) to Stepwell (plate 8B) are made of local stones. Dry seasons with little rainfall experience extreme heat 
during the summer and extreme cold during the winter seasons. Therefore, the traditional constructions have created designs 
to remain cool in summer and warmer during the winter seasons. Windows and various openings are designed to circulate 
natural air to cool inside the building during the summer and closed the openings to remain warmer in winter seasons. Thus, 
sustainable design remained a primary force of mankind for their survival and comfort from ancient time without electricity.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture40/40_5.htm [9/26/2013 3:59:20 PM]
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