# Syllabus - Biotechnology, GATE 2017 Notes | Study GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches) - GATE

## GATE: Syllabus - Biotechnology, GATE 2017 Notes | Study GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches) - GATE

The document Syllabus - Biotechnology, GATE 2017 Notes | Study GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches) - GATE is a part of the GATE Course GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches).
All you need of GATE at this link: GATE

Biotechnology

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and
Eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima
and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series. Differential
Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant
coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and
wave equations. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation,
Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression
analysis. Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations,
Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential
equations.

Section 2: General Biotechnology

Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure,
action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism
of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids
and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics

Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and
diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and
nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and
host-pathogen interaction

Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control;
Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes;
Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their
regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene
interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra
chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction,
conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA
damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases

Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal;
Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR,
Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic
interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray

Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity;
Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis
of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and
secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility
complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal
antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity;
Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure
databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices,
sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and
proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force
fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)

Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral
vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant
expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and
expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase
chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization;
RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy

Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture
and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient
optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root
culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance

Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue
preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell
growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology;
Animal cloning; Transgenic animals

Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design,
ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of
fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics
of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and
media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and
enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid
separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility
analysis

Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream;
Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and
plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites;
Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and
purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and
membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and
cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for
stabilization of solid / liquid wastes

The document Syllabus - Biotechnology, GATE 2017 Notes | Study GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches) - GATE is a part of the GATE Course GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches).
All you need of GATE at this link: GATE
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## GATE Past Year Papers for Practice (All Branches)

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