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**Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA)**

**(COMMON TO ALL PAPERS)**

**Verbal Ability:** English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,

instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

**Numerical Ability:** Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data

interpretation.

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and

eigenvectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor

series, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial

derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl,

Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes,

Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations:** First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear

differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations,

Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one

dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

**Complex variables:** Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle

inequality.

**Probability and Statistics:** Definitions of probability and sampling theorems,

Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random

variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, Linear regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods:** Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic

equations. Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule. Single and multi-step

methods for numerical solution of differential equations.

**Section 2: Process Calculations and Thermodynamics**

Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multicomponent,

reacting and non-reacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle,

bypass and purge calculations; Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis.

First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and

open systems. Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure

substances: Equation of State and residual properties, properties of mixtures: partial

molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase

equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium.

**Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations**

Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, shell-balances including

differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, Macroscopic friction

factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, flow

meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past

immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating

velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop.

Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of

solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and

classification, filtration, agitation and mixing; conveying of solids.

**Section 4: Heat Transfer**

Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal

boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and

evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process

calculations. Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single

and multiple effect evaporators.

**Section 5: Mass Transfer**

Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration

and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies;

stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts;

design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid

extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.

**Section 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering**

Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of

kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, non-ideal reactors;

residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal reactors;

kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.

**Section 7: Instrumentation and Process Control**

Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process

modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various

systems, systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P,

PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability,

frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control.

**Section 8: Plant Design and Economics**

Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and

total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash

flow, optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments

such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors.

**Section 9: Chemical Technology**

Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry),

fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper,

Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization

industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers).

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