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**Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA)**

**(COMMON TO ALL PAPERS)**

**Verbal Ability:** English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,

instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

**Numerical Ability:** Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data

interpretation.

**Civil Engineering**

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra: **Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen

vectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value

theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite

and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial

derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional

derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): **First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher

order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace

transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.

**Partial Differential Equation (PDE): **Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional

diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation

and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

**Probability and Statistics: **Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional

probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous

random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics - Mean,

median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.

**Numerical Methods:** Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear

and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and

Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s

rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

**Section 2: Structural Engineering**

**Engineering Mechanics: **System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations;

Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid

body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods;

Principles of virtual work.

**Solid Mechanics:** Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams;

Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural

and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and

direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis:** Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy

methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames;

Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence

lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.

**Construction Materials and Management: **Construction Materials: Structural steel -

composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete - constituents, mix design,

short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction

Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate

analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network

analysis - PERT and CPM.

**Concrete Structures:** Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design

of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis

of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

**Steel Structures:** Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and

compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections - simple

and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of

beams and frames.

**Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering**

**Soil Mechanics:** Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase

relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system;

Permeability - one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils - two-dimensional

flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage

force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; Onedimensional

consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective

and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.

**Foundation Engineering:** Sub-surface investigations - scope, drilling bore holes, sampling,

plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories -

Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes - finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and

Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils - Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories,

pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations - Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity

theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure;

Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations - types of piles, dynamic and

static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin

friction.

**Section 4: Water Resources Engineering**

**Fluid Mechanics:** Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and

corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy

equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of

boundary layer and its growth.

**Hydraulics: **Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes;

Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics

of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics -

Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump,

uniform flow and gradually varied flow

**Hydrology:** Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed,

infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir

capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology -

steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.

**Irrigation:** Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design

of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on

permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and

drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.

**Section 5: Environmental Engineering**

**Water and Waste Water: **Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water

treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit

processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage

treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary

treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment,

quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment.

Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

**Air Pollution:** Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air

pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid

wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy

recovery, treatment and disposal).

**Noise Pollution: **Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of

noise and control of noise pollution.

**Section 6: Transportation Engineering**

**Transportation Infrastructure: **Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric

design of highways - cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical

alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit

taxiway design.

**Highway Pavements:** Highway materials - desirable properties and quality control tests;

Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design

of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011;

Distresses in concrete pavements.

**Traffic Engineering:** Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time - delay and O-D study, PCU,

peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic

data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental

relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections

and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban

roads.

**Section 7: Geomatics Engineering**

Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps - scale, coordinate system;

Distance and angle measurement - Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and

triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.

Photogrammetry - scale, flying height; Remote sensing - basics, platform and sensors,

visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and

Geographical Positioning system (GPS).

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