Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA)
(COMMON TO ALL PAPERS)
Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data
Section 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen
Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value
theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite
and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial
derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional
derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher
order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace
transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.
Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional
diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation
and two-dimensional Laplace equation.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional
probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous
random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics - Mean,
median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.
Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear
and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and
Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s
rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.
Section 2: Structural Engineering
Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations;
Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid
body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods;
Principles of virtual work.
Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams;
Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural
and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and
direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy
methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames;
Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence
lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural steel -
composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete - constituents, mix design,
short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction
Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate
analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network
analysis - PERT and CPM.
Concrete Structures: Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design
of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis
of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and
compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections - simple
and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of
beams and frames.
Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering
Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase
relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system;
Permeability - one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils - two-dimensional
flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage
force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; Onedimensional
consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective
and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.
Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations - scope, drilling bore holes, sampling,
plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories -
Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes - finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and
Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils - Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories,
pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations - Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity
theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure;
Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations - types of piles, dynamic and
static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin
Section 4: Water Resources Engineering
Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and
corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy
equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of
boundary layer and its growth.
Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes;
Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics
of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics -
Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump,
uniform flow and gradually varied flow
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed,
infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir
capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology -
steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.
Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design
of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on
permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and
drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.
Section 5: Environmental Engineering
Water and Waste Water: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water
treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit
processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage
treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary
treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment,
quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment.
Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air
pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid
wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy
recovery, treatment and disposal).
Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of
noise and control of noise pollution.
Section 6: Transportation Engineering
Transportation Infrastructure: Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric
design of highways - cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical
alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit
Highway Pavements: Highway materials - desirable properties and quality control tests;
Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design
of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011;
Distresses in concrete pavements.
Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time - delay and O-D study, PCU,
peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic
data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental
relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections
and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban
Section 7: Geomatics Engineering
Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps - scale, coordinate system;
Distance and angle measurement - Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and
triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.
Photogrammetry - scale, flying height; Remote sensing - basics, platform and sensors,
visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and
Geographical Positioning system (GPS).