Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA)
(COMMON TO ALL PAPERS)
Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data
Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen
values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and
minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume
integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear
ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace
transforms; PDEs –Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random
variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations;
integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for
Section 1: Textile Fibers
Classification of textile fibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers;
Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk, Introduction to
important bast fibres; properties and uses of natural and man- made fibres including
carbon, aramid and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers;
physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis.
Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition,
plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; Production process
of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell.
Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and
polypropylene; Melt Spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene; Wet
and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres; post spinning operations
such as drawing, heat setting, tow- to-top conversion and different texturing methods.
Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction,
birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods
(DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphology of man-made fibres,
mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres; fibre structure and
Section 2: Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties
Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working
principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment; the technology of carding,
carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting
principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; roller arrangements in
drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and
function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recent developments in comber;
Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist; Principle of ring
spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler, ring
& traveler designs, mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages;
Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn
twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn; Principles of
compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning.
Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient; Twist
factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns; Fibre configuration and orientation
in yarn; Cause of fibre migration and its estimation; Irregularity index; Structure
property relationship of compact ring, rotor, air-jet and friction spun yarns.
Section 3: Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties
Principles of winding processes and machines, random, precision and step
precision winding, package faults and their remedies; Yarn clearers and
tensioners; Different systems of yarn splicing; Features of modern cone winding
machines; Different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and
sectional warping machines; Different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament
yarns, sizing machines; Principles of pirn winding processes and machines.
Primary and secondary motions of loom, cam design & kinematics of sley, effect of
their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving
performance; Dobby and jacquard shedding; Mechanics of weft insertion with
shuttle, warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment;
Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines; Principles of
multiphase and circular looms.
Principles of weft and warp knitting, basic weft and warp knitted structures;
Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics, principle
of web formation & bonding.
Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze,
leno and double cloth constructions. Peirce’s equations for fabric geometry;
elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover and maximum set of woven
Section 4: Textile Testing
Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors; Measurement of fibre
length, fineness, crimp; measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content;
High volume fibre testing; Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness; Tensile
testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns;
Classimat fault analysis; Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties
like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease
recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance; Instruments
and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Statistical analysis of
experimental results, frequency distributions, correlation, significance tests,
analysis of variance and control charts.
Section 5: Chemical processing
Impurities in natural fibre; Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for
cotton, wool and silk; Mercerization of cotton; Preparatory processes for manmade
fibres and their blends.
Classification of dyes; Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with
appropriate dye classes; Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends;
Dyeing machines; Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used; Dye
fibre interaction; Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing; Methods
for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness.
Styles of printing; Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners; Printing
auxiliaries; Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and
metal complex dyes, Printing of polyester with disperse dyes; Pigment
printing; Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester; Transfer
printing of polyester; Inkjet printing.
Mechanical finishing of cotton. Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame
retardant and enzyme (bio-polishing) finishing of cotton; Milling, decatizing and
shrink resistant finishing of wool; Antistatic and soil release finishing; Heat setting
of synthetic fabrics; Minimum application techniques; Pollution control and
treatment of effluents.