Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Chemical Engineering : Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Formaldehyde 

Some major intermediates derived from formaldehyde are chelating agents, acetal resins, 1,4-butanediol, polyols, methylene diisocynate. It is also used for the manufacture of wide variety of chemicals, including sealant, herbicides, fertilisers, coating, and pharmaceutical. Product profile of formaldehyde is given in Table M-VII 4.7.  

Formaldehyde is commercially available as aqueous solution with concentration ranging from 30-56 wt.% HCHO. It is also sold in solid form as paraformaldehyde or trioxane. The production of formaldehyde in India has been growing at a fairly constant rate during last ten years. There are presently about 17 units in India. Installed capacity and production of formaldehyde during 2003-04 was 2.72 lakh tonnes and 1.89 lakh tonnes respectively. 

Various industrial processes for manufacture of formaldehyde using silver and ironmolybdenum catalyst are given below: 

Catalyst                                                      Process licensor

Silver catalyst processes                           Bayer, Chemical construction, Ciba, DuPont, IG Farben, CdF Chemie process, BASF process, ICI process,  

Iron-molybdenum catalyst processes        Degussa process, Formox process, Fischer-Adler, Hiag-Lurgi, IFP-CdF Chimle Lumus, Motedisous, Nikka Topsoe, Prolex 

Process diagram for manufacture of formaldehyde using silver and iron-molybdenum catalyst is shown in Figure M-VII 4.5 and Figure M-VII 4.6 respectively. 

Table M-VII 4.7: Product Profile of Formaldehyde 

 

Product

Uses

Formaldehyde

Thermosetting resin: Phenol, Urea Melamine, Formaldehyde resins

Hexamethylenetetramine, Plastic & pharmaceuticals

1,4-Butadiol

Methylene diisocyanate

Fertiliser, Disinfectant, Biocide Preservative, Reducing agent, Corrosion inhibitor

Polyaceta resin p-formaldehyde

Pentaerythritol (Explosive-PETN),Alkyl resins

 
Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev
Figure M-VII 4.5: Formaldehyde Using Silver Catalyst
Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev
Figure M-VII 4.6: Formaldehyde from Iron Molybdenum Catalyst
 
Acetic Acid (Ch3cooh) 
 
Acetic acid is one of the most widely used organic acid and finds application in the manufacture of wide range of chemicals. Acetic acid is the largest methanol based chemical in terms of volume. World capacity and consumption pattern of acetic acid is given in Table M-VII 4.8. Installed capacity of acetic acid in India is mention in Table M-VII 4.9. Table M-VII 4.10 shows the market share of acetic acid in India by different companies. Product profile of acetic acid is given in Table M-VII 4.11.

Table M-VII 4.8: World Acetic Acid Capacity and Consumption Pattern 

 

Product

Consu

mptio

n

2002

(’000

tonnes

)

Consumption

Growth

(percent)

Capacity

2002

(’000

tonnes)

Announced

Capacity due by 2012 (’000 tonnes)

Capacity Change Needed by 2012 2002 after Announcement

1997­

2002

2002­

2007

2007­

2012

(’000

tonnes)

percent

Acetic

Acid

8,302

3.9

3.4

2.5

9,559

994

1,785

19

 

 Table M-VII 4.9: Installed Capacities of Acetic Acid in India 

Company

Installed capacity (TPA)

Indian Organics Chemicals Ltd.

15,000

Somaiya Chemicals ltd.

15,000

Somaiya organics

20,000

Andhra Sugars Ltd.

1,000

Ashok Organic Industries

30,000

EID Parry (I) Ltd.

10,000

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertiliser Corp. Ltd.

50,000

Kanoria Chemicals & Industries

6,000

Laxmi Organic Ltd.

9,500

Trichy Distilleries

12,000

Vam Organics

1,15,500

Ashok Alcochem Ltd.

5,400

Dhampur Sugar mills

7,300

Pentokey Ltd.

7,000

Polychem Ltd.

7,500

Trident alcochem

 

6,000

Table M-VII 4.10:Market Share of Major Acetic Acid Manufacturer

Name of the companies

Percent Share

Jubilant Organosys Ltd.

22

Ashok Organics ltd.

17

IOCL

9

Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertiliser Corp. Ltd.

9

Others

43

 

 Table M-VII 4.11: Product Profile of Acetic Acid  

Product

Uses

Mono chloro acetic acid

CMC manufacture, adhesives, thickeners for drilling muds, food industry, pharmaceuticals, textiles, 2,4-D(insecticides)

Ethyl acetate,n-butyl acetate, isopropyl acetate

Coatings, adhesives, inks and cosmetics

Vinegar

Food Preservative

Cellulose Acetate

Fibers, plastic film

Acetic anhydride

Pharmaceuticals, intermediates, cellulose acetate

Acetanilide

Pharmaceutical, dyes intermediate, Rubber accelerator, Peroxide stabilizers

Per acetic acid

Special Oxidants

Terephthalic Acid, DMT

Polyester fiber, packaging, photographic films, magnetic tape sectors

Vinyl acetate

Polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl chloride, paints, Adhesives, and coatings

 

 

Chloromethanes (Methyl Chloride, Methylene Dichloride, Chloroform, Carbon Tetrachloride) 

Chlorinated methanes, which include methyl chloride, methylene dichloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, are important derivatives of methane and find wide application as solvents and as intermediate products. Product profile of Chloromethane is given in Table M-VII 4.12

Table M-VII 4.12: Product Profile of Chloromethane 

Product

Uses

Methyl chloride

Refrigerant, butyl rubber, silicones, solvent, tetramethyl lead, intermediates

Methylene

dichloride

Solvent, Intermediates, Photographic film, Degreasing solvents, Aerosol, Propellants

Chloroform

Chlorodifluoro methane, (Refrigerants), Propellants,

 

 

Pharmaceuticals

Carbon tetra

chloride

Dichlorodifluoro methane, Trichlorofluoro methane, Solvent, Fire extinguishers

 

Process Technology

There are two major routes for the manufacture of chloromethane:

  • Direct chlorination of methane
  • Through methanol route

 Direct Chlorination of Methane: Chlorination of methane (natural gas) is carried out at around 400-450 oC during which following reaction takes place: 

                            Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Dimethyl Formamide [Hcon(Ch3)2]

Dimethyl formamide is one of widely used solvents in the manufacture of acrylic fiber. Because of its high dielectric constant, aprotic nature, wide liquid range and low volatility, dissolving power it is frequently used for as solvent.  

Process Technology

Dimethyl formamide is made by following two processes:

Two step process

Process involves carbonisation of methanol to methyl formate using basic catalyst and reaction of methyl formate with dimethylamine.

Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev  

Acetylene

It plays important role during and after World War II in providing feedstock for large number of organic chemicals when petrochemical industry was not well developed. Acetylene’s highly reactive triple bond provided a ready “handle” for chemists to grab onto for designing process chemistry Safety issues involved with handling of large volumes of acetylene and its expense are big problem with adoption of acetylene based processes. The process of acetylene requires much energy and is very expensive. of attractive petrochemical feedstock. Acetylene is still being used for manufacture of chemicals.  

Various Routes for Acetylene:

Calcium Carbide Route: This is the oldest method for production of acetylene and still acetylene is produced by this process in small scale as well large scale. Calcium carbide is produced by reacting lime with coke at temperature 2,000-2,100 oCin an electric furnace. Two processes produce acetylene from calcium carbide process: Wet process and Dry process. Dry process is preferred as in case of calcium hydroxide, which is produced during the process (is produced in the form of dry calcium hydrate).

CaC2 +2 H2O→ C2H2 + Ca(OH)2 

Acetylene from Cracking of Hydrocarbons: Cracking of hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, ethylene, and natural gas can make acetylene.

  • 2 CH4 → C2H2 +3 H2 
  • C2H4 →C2H2+H2 
  • C4H10 →C2H2+C2H4+2 H2

Product Derived from Acetylene: Acetylene is extremely reactive hydrocarbon and was initially was used for the manufacture of  large number of  chemicals which are now being derived from acetylene route. Product profile of acetylene is given  in Figure M-VII 4.7 and Figure M-VII 4.8

Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VII 4.7: Product Profile of Acetylene

Acetaldehyde:

Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Acrylonitrile: HC≡CH+HCN    →           HC=CH= CH2=CHCN 

Chlorinated solvents: 

Synthesis Gas and its Derivatives (Part - 2) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Vinyl acetate:

HC≡CH+CH3COOH  →      CH2 = CHOOCCH3 

Chloreprene 

HC≡CH+CH3COOH         CH2 = CHOOCCH3

CH2 = CHOOCCH3+Cl2   CH2=CClCH=CH2

Vinyl Chloride and Vinylidene Chloride   

HC≡CH+HCl  →         CH2 =CHCl 

CH2 =CHCl+Cl2  → CH2 ClCHCl2

CH2 ClCHCl2 →  CH2 = CCl2+ HCl

Vinyl fluoride: 

HC≡CH+ HF   → CH2=CHF

Figure M-VII 4.8: Reactions in Acetylene derived Chemicals 

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