Class 7 > Computer Science for Class 7 > Textbook: History of Computers- From Abacus to Smart Phones

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Page 1 Jyoti and Tejas have brought an abacus, pictures of old computers, a handmade slide rule, a cloth with pretty designs and some notes written on sheets of paper. Other students are looking on and wondering how these articles are related to history of computers. Simple calculations were done in innovative ways with stones, pebbles and even bones. These were called counters. A device with more complicated calculation abilities was the abacus, of which we can find many versions. Abacus – 6 th century B. C Computing Squares and sums by arranging counters Calculation using fingers Sieve of Eratosthenes: Finding prime numbers in 3 rd century B.C Jyoti: We have gathered history of computers right from 3rd century B.C. It is very interesting to find what people did when there were no computers. Information gathering Use of counters to aid calculations: 3 rd - 6 th century B.C The first step for gathering information is to list what you know, what you do not know. Next, gather, consolidate, analyse and organise the gathered information. 1 Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: - Various devices that have been used for computations in the past. - Major milestones in development of modern day computers - Development of Internet, browser and other Internet based applications, games and Linux. History of Computers: From Abacus to Smart phones 8 Moz: We have been using computers for the past 40 years. But the origin of the concepts, algorithms and the developments in computations date back to the very early times and cultures. Tejas: In very early days, when there were no computational devices, people used pebbles, bones and the fingers of hands to count and calculate. Jyoti: They even used ropes and shapes for some measurements. For example: For assuring a right angle, people used 3-4-5 right triangle shape or a rope with 12 evenly spaced knots, which could be formed into a 3-4-5 right triangle. 1 Page 2 Jyoti and Tejas have brought an abacus, pictures of old computers, a handmade slide rule, a cloth with pretty designs and some notes written on sheets of paper. Other students are looking on and wondering how these articles are related to history of computers. Simple calculations were done in innovative ways with stones, pebbles and even bones. These were called counters. A device with more complicated calculation abilities was the abacus, of which we can find many versions. Abacus – 6 th century B. C Computing Squares and sums by arranging counters Calculation using fingers Sieve of Eratosthenes: Finding prime numbers in 3 rd century B.C Jyoti: We have gathered history of computers right from 3rd century B.C. It is very interesting to find what people did when there were no computers. Information gathering Use of counters to aid calculations: 3 rd - 6 th century B.C The first step for gathering information is to list what you know, what you do not know. Next, gather, consolidate, analyse and organise the gathered information. 1 Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: - Various devices that have been used for computations in the past. - Major milestones in development of modern day computers - Development of Internet, browser and other Internet based applications, games and Linux. History of Computers: From Abacus to Smart phones 8 Moz: We have been using computers for the past 40 years. But the origin of the concepts, algorithms and the developments in computations date back to the very early times and cultures. Tejas: In very early days, when there were no computational devices, people used pebbles, bones and the fingers of hands to count and calculate. Jyoti: They even used ropes and shapes for some measurements. For example: For assuring a right angle, people used 3-4-5 right triangle shape or a rope with 12 evenly spaced knots, which could be formed into a 3-4-5 right triangle. 1 Explorations of various continents and trading brought in the requirements of precise calculations of sea routes, accounting, planetary positions, and navigational tables- 16 th century. Mechanical devices were also developed to assist in tedious and repetitive calculations like generating calendars of a year, taxing and trading. The Slide rule was used for landing man on the Moon. This was used by NASA engineers in 1960s for the Apollo mission. Napier bones- Numbers 0 to 9 were marked on a set of ivory sticks in such a way that the product of any number can be found by placing the sticks side by side. Pascaline built by Pascal for his father who was a tax collector. Stepped reckoner by Leibniz using flutes. Schikard’s calculating clock with gears Tejas: Early mathematicians around the world such as al-Khwarizmi, Panini, and Euclid developed many algorithms. Jyoti: Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of al-Khwarizmi’s name. Simple devices to aid human calculations- 16th century Devices with gears and flutes for calculations- 16th-17th century Jyoti: The first computers were people. This was a job title given to people who did repetitive calculations for navigational tables, planetary positions and other such requirements. Tejas: Women with mathematical proficiency were often employed for the job. Jyoti: I am sure a lot of calculations were involved in building pyramids and Taj Mahal. Tejas: Of course mathematics and physics knowledge was applied to weave the designs for the beautiful old tapestry that we see in many places. Moz: Good observations. So they started inventing devices for precise calculations and automation of certain tasks. One of the important automation which is the Jaquard loom is important in the computer history. Page 3 Jyoti and Tejas have brought an abacus, pictures of old computers, a handmade slide rule, a cloth with pretty designs and some notes written on sheets of paper. Other students are looking on and wondering how these articles are related to history of computers. Simple calculations were done in innovative ways with stones, pebbles and even bones. These were called counters. A device with more complicated calculation abilities was the abacus, of which we can find many versions. Abacus – 6 th century B. C Computing Squares and sums by arranging counters Calculation using fingers Sieve of Eratosthenes: Finding prime numbers in 3 rd century B.C Jyoti: We have gathered history of computers right from 3rd century B.C. It is very interesting to find what people did when there were no computers. Information gathering Use of counters to aid calculations: 3 rd - 6 th century B.C The first step for gathering information is to list what you know, what you do not know. Next, gather, consolidate, analyse and organise the gathered information. 1 Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: - Various devices that have been used for computations in the past. - Major milestones in development of modern day computers - Development of Internet, browser and other Internet based applications, games and Linux. History of Computers: From Abacus to Smart phones 8 Moz: We have been using computers for the past 40 years. But the origin of the concepts, algorithms and the developments in computations date back to the very early times and cultures. Tejas: In very early days, when there were no computational devices, people used pebbles, bones and the fingers of hands to count and calculate. Jyoti: They even used ropes and shapes for some measurements. For example: For assuring a right angle, people used 3-4-5 right triangle shape or a rope with 12 evenly spaced knots, which could be formed into a 3-4-5 right triangle. 1 Explorations of various continents and trading brought in the requirements of precise calculations of sea routes, accounting, planetary positions, and navigational tables- 16 th century. Mechanical devices were also developed to assist in tedious and repetitive calculations like generating calendars of a year, taxing and trading. The Slide rule was used for landing man on the Moon. This was used by NASA engineers in 1960s for the Apollo mission. Napier bones- Numbers 0 to 9 were marked on a set of ivory sticks in such a way that the product of any number can be found by placing the sticks side by side. Pascaline built by Pascal for his father who was a tax collector. Stepped reckoner by Leibniz using flutes. Schikard’s calculating clock with gears Tejas: Early mathematicians around the world such as al-Khwarizmi, Panini, and Euclid developed many algorithms. Jyoti: Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of al-Khwarizmi’s name. Simple devices to aid human calculations- 16th century Devices with gears and flutes for calculations- 16th-17th century Jyoti: The first computers were people. This was a job title given to people who did repetitive calculations for navigational tables, planetary positions and other such requirements. Tejas: Women with mathematical proficiency were often employed for the job. Jyoti: I am sure a lot of calculations were involved in building pyramids and Taj Mahal. Tejas: Of course mathematics and physics knowledge was applied to weave the designs for the beautiful old tapestry that we see in many places. Moz: Good observations. So they started inventing devices for precise calculations and automation of certain tasks. One of the important automation which is the Jaquard loom is important in the computer history. Jyoti: The Jacquard loom invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard used punched cards to control a sequence of operations. A pattern of the loom’s weave could be changed by changing the punched card. Moz: Why do you think Jacquard looms are important? Tejas: The loom weaves the design on the punched card by executing the sequence of operations on the card, one line after another. This idea is used in modern programming. For example, in a Scratch program the computer executes the blocks one by one. Jyoti: In computers we use an input device like keyboard to input data. The punched card is like an input to the loom. Moz: Yes. You are right. Babbage used the punched card idea to store data in his analytical machine. Tejas: Boolean algebra which is extensively used in computers was also developed in 19 th century by the mathematician George Boole. Moz: Yes. Boolean logic is one of the most important concepts in computers. You will be learning about these concepts of programming soon. Note that the 19 th century contributions of automating and the development of algorithm are of immense value to the development of electronic computers in the 20 th century. Info Mechanical computation machines- Early 19 th century Automation with punched cards 18 th -19 th century Trade, travel, and increase in population (which demanded increase in requirements like clothing, food etc.), led to automation of machinery in 18 th -19 th century. Developments in logic and need for more complicated calculations led to mechanical computation devices which were designed and implemented for varied degree of computations. But, accuracy, speed and precision could not be ensured due to the wear and tear of the mechanical components. Babbage- The Analytical Machine The anlaytical machine was designed but not built. The main parts of the machine were called the “store” and “mill”. Punched cards store data, which is equivalent to the memory unit in computers. Mill weaves or processes the data to give a result, which is equivalent to the central processing unit in computers. He used conditional processing of data. Example: If block in Scratch. ADA lovelace- The first programmer ADA lovelace, a friend of Babbage wrote the first sequence of instructions for various tasks for the analytical engine. She used programming concept of looping for repetitive actions. Example: repeat block in Scratch. She used subroutines in her programs. Hollerith desk It consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count and a large wall of dial indicators to display the results of the count. For example: a car speedometer is a dial indicator. This was used for U.S census 1890. Page 4 Jyoti and Tejas have brought an abacus, pictures of old computers, a handmade slide rule, a cloth with pretty designs and some notes written on sheets of paper. Other students are looking on and wondering how these articles are related to history of computers. Simple calculations were done in innovative ways with stones, pebbles and even bones. These were called counters. A device with more complicated calculation abilities was the abacus, of which we can find many versions. Abacus – 6 th century B. C Computing Squares and sums by arranging counters Calculation using fingers Sieve of Eratosthenes: Finding prime numbers in 3 rd century B.C Jyoti: We have gathered history of computers right from 3rd century B.C. It is very interesting to find what people did when there were no computers. Information gathering Use of counters to aid calculations: 3 rd - 6 th century B.C The first step for gathering information is to list what you know, what you do not know. Next, gather, consolidate, analyse and organise the gathered information. 1 Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: - Various devices that have been used for computations in the past. - Major milestones in development of modern day computers - Development of Internet, browser and other Internet based applications, games and Linux. History of Computers: From Abacus to Smart phones 8 Moz: We have been using computers for the past 40 years. But the origin of the concepts, algorithms and the developments in computations date back to the very early times and cultures. Tejas: In very early days, when there were no computational devices, people used pebbles, bones and the fingers of hands to count and calculate. Jyoti: They even used ropes and shapes for some measurements. For example: For assuring a right angle, people used 3-4-5 right triangle shape or a rope with 12 evenly spaced knots, which could be formed into a 3-4-5 right triangle. 1 Explorations of various continents and trading brought in the requirements of precise calculations of sea routes, accounting, planetary positions, and navigational tables- 16 th century. Mechanical devices were also developed to assist in tedious and repetitive calculations like generating calendars of a year, taxing and trading. The Slide rule was used for landing man on the Moon. This was used by NASA engineers in 1960s for the Apollo mission. Napier bones- Numbers 0 to 9 were marked on a set of ivory sticks in such a way that the product of any number can be found by placing the sticks side by side. Pascaline built by Pascal for his father who was a tax collector. Stepped reckoner by Leibniz using flutes. Schikard’s calculating clock with gears Tejas: Early mathematicians around the world such as al-Khwarizmi, Panini, and Euclid developed many algorithms. Jyoti: Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of al-Khwarizmi’s name. Simple devices to aid human calculations- 16th century Devices with gears and flutes for calculations- 16th-17th century Jyoti: The first computers were people. This was a job title given to people who did repetitive calculations for navigational tables, planetary positions and other such requirements. Tejas: Women with mathematical proficiency were often employed for the job. Jyoti: I am sure a lot of calculations were involved in building pyramids and Taj Mahal. Tejas: Of course mathematics and physics knowledge was applied to weave the designs for the beautiful old tapestry that we see in many places. Moz: Good observations. So they started inventing devices for precise calculations and automation of certain tasks. One of the important automation which is the Jaquard loom is important in the computer history. Jyoti: The Jacquard loom invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard used punched cards to control a sequence of operations. A pattern of the loom’s weave could be changed by changing the punched card. Moz: Why do you think Jacquard looms are important? Tejas: The loom weaves the design on the punched card by executing the sequence of operations on the card, one line after another. This idea is used in modern programming. For example, in a Scratch program the computer executes the blocks one by one. Jyoti: In computers we use an input device like keyboard to input data. The punched card is like an input to the loom. Moz: Yes. You are right. Babbage used the punched card idea to store data in his analytical machine. Tejas: Boolean algebra which is extensively used in computers was also developed in 19 th century by the mathematician George Boole. Moz: Yes. Boolean logic is one of the most important concepts in computers. You will be learning about these concepts of programming soon. Note that the 19 th century contributions of automating and the development of algorithm are of immense value to the development of electronic computers in the 20 th century. Info Mechanical computation machines- Early 19 th century Automation with punched cards 18 th -19 th century Trade, travel, and increase in population (which demanded increase in requirements like clothing, food etc.), led to automation of machinery in 18 th -19 th century. Developments in logic and need for more complicated calculations led to mechanical computation devices which were designed and implemented for varied degree of computations. But, accuracy, speed and precision could not be ensured due to the wear and tear of the mechanical components. Babbage- The Analytical Machine The anlaytical machine was designed but not built. The main parts of the machine were called the “store” and “mill”. Punched cards store data, which is equivalent to the memory unit in computers. Mill weaves or processes the data to give a result, which is equivalent to the central processing unit in computers. He used conditional processing of data. Example: If block in Scratch. ADA lovelace- The first programmer ADA lovelace, a friend of Babbage wrote the first sequence of instructions for various tasks for the analytical engine. She used programming concept of looping for repetitive actions. Example: repeat block in Scratch. She used subroutines in her programs. Hollerith desk It consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count and a large wall of dial indicators to display the results of the count. For example: a car speedometer is a dial indicator. This was used for U.S census 1890. Jyoti: These were used for limited purposes like solving mathematical equations, decoding messages, or for tables of firing artillery in world war II. Moz: Yes. These computers were based on binary representation of data and boolean algebra. Tejas: Early 20 th century saw many analog computers which were mechanical or electrical or electromechanical devices. Jyoti: In 1945, Von Neumann devised the “Stored program architecture”. This changed the way a program was written and altered. Moz: Yes. The program and data were stored in memory and instructions were processed one after the other. Tejas: The input was typed on a terminal which looks like a monitor with keyboard in the front, or on cards. Each instruction was typed on one card and the deck of cards was read by a card reader and stored in memory. Moz: Those who submitted the program had to wait till their program was processed to obtain the printed output. Jyoti: If the programmer had to change the program, they had to type in another card and insert it in the deck of cards. Analog computers- First general purpose computers- first half of 1900-1940 The war time requirements for artillery firing, communication of strategies using complicated codes led to electromechanical computers where magnetic storage and vacuum tubes were first used. Babbage’s punched card was used to input data. 1936 : Alan Turing regarded to be the father of modern Computer Science provided a formalisation for the concept of algorithm and computations. 1941 : Konrad Zuse inventor of the program-contro lled computer, built the first working computer. This computer was based on magnetic storage. 1942 : Atanasoff-Berry computer which used vacuum tube, binary numbers, was non programmable. 1943 : Colossus a secret British computer with limited programmability built using vaccum tubes, was built to break the German wartime codes. It was the first computer to read and decipher the codes using cryptography. 1944 : Harvard Mark I an electromechanical computer built out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches had limited programmability. It used punched paper tape instead of the punched cards. It worked for almost 15 years. Grace Hopper was the primary programmer. She invented the first high level language called Flow-Matic which later developed into COBOL. She also constructed the first compiler. She found the first computer “bug”: a dead moth that got into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking the reading of the holes in the paper tape. The word “bug” had been used to describe a defect since at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word “debugging” to describe the work to eliminate program faults. Info Mechanical computation machines - 20 th century Digital computers- 1940 to 1970 Census, elections, research in various fields and many such advances in different fields required increased speed, precision and immediate results. In the mid 1940s, stored program digital computer architecture was designed with CPU and memory to hold instructions and data. Page 5 Jyoti and Tejas have brought an abacus, pictures of old computers, a handmade slide rule, a cloth with pretty designs and some notes written on sheets of paper. Other students are looking on and wondering how these articles are related to history of computers. Simple calculations were done in innovative ways with stones, pebbles and even bones. These were called counters. A device with more complicated calculation abilities was the abacus, of which we can find many versions. Abacus – 6 th century B. C Computing Squares and sums by arranging counters Calculation using fingers Sieve of Eratosthenes: Finding prime numbers in 3 rd century B.C Jyoti: We have gathered history of computers right from 3rd century B.C. It is very interesting to find what people did when there were no computers. Information gathering Use of counters to aid calculations: 3 rd - 6 th century B.C The first step for gathering information is to list what you know, what you do not know. Next, gather, consolidate, analyse and organise the gathered information. 1 Aim: In this lesson, you will learn: - Various devices that have been used for computations in the past. - Major milestones in development of modern day computers - Development of Internet, browser and other Internet based applications, games and Linux. History of Computers: From Abacus to Smart phones 8 Moz: We have been using computers for the past 40 years. But the origin of the concepts, algorithms and the developments in computations date back to the very early times and cultures. Tejas: In very early days, when there were no computational devices, people used pebbles, bones and the fingers of hands to count and calculate. Jyoti: They even used ropes and shapes for some measurements. For example: For assuring a right angle, people used 3-4-5 right triangle shape or a rope with 12 evenly spaced knots, which could be formed into a 3-4-5 right triangle. 1 Explorations of various continents and trading brought in the requirements of precise calculations of sea routes, accounting, planetary positions, and navigational tables- 16 th century. Mechanical devices were also developed to assist in tedious and repetitive calculations like generating calendars of a year, taxing and trading. The Slide rule was used for landing man on the Moon. This was used by NASA engineers in 1960s for the Apollo mission. Napier bones- Numbers 0 to 9 were marked on a set of ivory sticks in such a way that the product of any number can be found by placing the sticks side by side. Pascaline built by Pascal for his father who was a tax collector. Stepped reckoner by Leibniz using flutes. Schikard’s calculating clock with gears Tejas: Early mathematicians around the world such as al-Khwarizmi, Panini, and Euclid developed many algorithms. Jyoti: Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of al-Khwarizmi’s name. Simple devices to aid human calculations- 16th century Devices with gears and flutes for calculations- 16th-17th century Jyoti: The first computers were people. This was a job title given to people who did repetitive calculations for navigational tables, planetary positions and other such requirements. Tejas: Women with mathematical proficiency were often employed for the job. Jyoti: I am sure a lot of calculations were involved in building pyramids and Taj Mahal. Tejas: Of course mathematics and physics knowledge was applied to weave the designs for the beautiful old tapestry that we see in many places. Moz: Good observations. So they started inventing devices for precise calculations and automation of certain tasks. One of the important automation which is the Jaquard loom is important in the computer history. Jyoti: The Jacquard loom invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard used punched cards to control a sequence of operations. A pattern of the loom’s weave could be changed by changing the punched card. Moz: Why do you think Jacquard looms are important? Tejas: The loom weaves the design on the punched card by executing the sequence of operations on the card, one line after another. This idea is used in modern programming. For example, in a Scratch program the computer executes the blocks one by one. Jyoti: In computers we use an input device like keyboard to input data. The punched card is like an input to the loom. Moz: Yes. You are right. Babbage used the punched card idea to store data in his analytical machine. Tejas: Boolean algebra which is extensively used in computers was also developed in 19 th century by the mathematician George Boole. Moz: Yes. Boolean logic is one of the most important concepts in computers. You will be learning about these concepts of programming soon. Note that the 19 th century contributions of automating and the development of algorithm are of immense value to the development of electronic computers in the 20 th century. Info Mechanical computation machines- Early 19 th century Automation with punched cards 18 th -19 th century Trade, travel, and increase in population (which demanded increase in requirements like clothing, food etc.), led to automation of machinery in 18 th -19 th century. Developments in logic and need for more complicated calculations led to mechanical computation devices which were designed and implemented for varied degree of computations. But, accuracy, speed and precision could not be ensured due to the wear and tear of the mechanical components. Babbage- The Analytical Machine The anlaytical machine was designed but not built. The main parts of the machine were called the “store” and “mill”. Punched cards store data, which is equivalent to the memory unit in computers. Mill weaves or processes the data to give a result, which is equivalent to the central processing unit in computers. He used conditional processing of data. Example: If block in Scratch. ADA lovelace- The first programmer ADA lovelace, a friend of Babbage wrote the first sequence of instructions for various tasks for the analytical engine. She used programming concept of looping for repetitive actions. Example: repeat block in Scratch. She used subroutines in her programs. Hollerith desk It consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count and a large wall of dial indicators to display the results of the count. For example: a car speedometer is a dial indicator. This was used for U.S census 1890. Jyoti: These were used for limited purposes like solving mathematical equations, decoding messages, or for tables of firing artillery in world war II. Moz: Yes. These computers were based on binary representation of data and boolean algebra. Tejas: Early 20 th century saw many analog computers which were mechanical or electrical or electromechanical devices. Jyoti: In 1945, Von Neumann devised the “Stored program architecture”. This changed the way a program was written and altered. Moz: Yes. The program and data were stored in memory and instructions were processed one after the other. Tejas: The input was typed on a terminal which looks like a monitor with keyboard in the front, or on cards. Each instruction was typed on one card and the deck of cards was read by a card reader and stored in memory. Moz: Those who submitted the program had to wait till their program was processed to obtain the printed output. Jyoti: If the programmer had to change the program, they had to type in another card and insert it in the deck of cards. Analog computers- First general purpose computers- first half of 1900-1940 The war time requirements for artillery firing, communication of strategies using complicated codes led to electromechanical computers where magnetic storage and vacuum tubes were first used. Babbage’s punched card was used to input data. 1936 : Alan Turing regarded to be the father of modern Computer Science provided a formalisation for the concept of algorithm and computations. 1941 : Konrad Zuse inventor of the program-contro lled computer, built the first working computer. This computer was based on magnetic storage. 1942 : Atanasoff-Berry computer which used vacuum tube, binary numbers, was non programmable. 1943 : Colossus a secret British computer with limited programmability built using vaccum tubes, was built to break the German wartime codes. It was the first computer to read and decipher the codes using cryptography. 1944 : Harvard Mark I an electromechanical computer built out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches had limited programmability. It used punched paper tape instead of the punched cards. It worked for almost 15 years. Grace Hopper was the primary programmer. She invented the first high level language called Flow-Matic which later developed into COBOL. She also constructed the first compiler. She found the first computer “bug”: a dead moth that got into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking the reading of the holes in the paper tape. The word “bug” had been used to describe a defect since at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word “debugging” to describe the work to eliminate program faults. Info Mechanical computation machines - 20 th century Digital computers- 1940 to 1970 Census, elections, research in various fields and many such advances in different fields required increased speed, precision and immediate results. In the mid 1940s, stored program digital computer architecture was designed with CPU and memory to hold instructions and data. Jyoti: Microprocessor revolution brought in the explosion of usage of computers in every field. Tejas: The size of computers started decreasing and the speed started increasing. Jyoti: The storage space also started increasing. Tejas: Most importantly the reliability of computers increased and the cost started decreasing. Moz: Yes. Invention of microprocessors revolutionised the computer development and due to the reduction of cost, by 1990, owning a personal computer became common. Computers with Microprocessors- 1970 onwards Use of microprocessors in computers increased reliability, precision and reduced size and cost. This led to uses of computers in offices, colleges, personal use and exploration of computer usage in every field. First generation computers These computers made from 1945-55 were named ENIAC, EDVAC and UNIVAC. The processor (or CPU) in these computers were made of vaccum tubes. They were the size of an entire room, over 5 meters high and very costly to maintain. Second generation computers These computers developed after 1955 and had transistors in the place of vaccum tubes in the processor. Transistors were more reliable, much cheaper and smaller. This generation computers had more computing power, were smaller in size, easier to maintain and were more affordable than the previous generation. Third generation computers These computers developed in the 1960’s, used integrated circuits. The trasistors were miniaturised and kept on silicon chips called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Fourth generation computers These were developed in the 1970s and used microprocessors or chips. The microprocessors were smaller than a postage stamp and had tremendous computing capabilities. Fifth generation computers These were developed in 1980s and used the concept of Artificial Intelligence. The different types of fifth generation computers are Desktop, notebook or laptop, palmtop, server, Mainframe and Super Computer. Desktop computers are based on ICs. • Notebook or laptop computer is same as desktop but can be carried around. • Palmtop is a miniature version of notebook with limited capabilities. • Server is a powerful version of desktop capable of catering to various applications in • a network environment. Mainframe is a powerful version of server and is capable of handling huge applications • and data processing. Super computer has multiprocessors to perform typical scientific applications that need • trillions of information per second while processing. Info Info Computation machines- Second half of 19 th century Computation machines- After 1970s These computers were built using vacuum tubes, transistors and integrated circuits, and are classified into the first three generations of computers respectively. The classification of generations is based on technology, speed, storage, reliability and cost.Read More

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