- Formation of an inter-governmental council consisting of the Prime Minister and Chief Ministers of states to decide collectively on various aspects of governance that cause friction between Centre and states.
- Sparing use of Article 356 of the Constitution should be made and all possibilities of formation of an alternative government must be explored before imposing Presidential rule in the state. The State Assembly should not be dissolved unless the proclamation is approved by the Parliament.
- It rejected the demand for the abolition of office of Governor as well as his selection from a panel of names given by the state governments. However, it suggested that active politicians should not be appointed governors. When the state and the Centre are ruled by different political parties, the Governor should not belong to the ruling party at the Centre. Further, the retiring governors should be debarred from accepting any office of profit.
- The judges of High Courts should not be transferred without their consent.
- The three-language formula should be implemented in its true spirit in all the states in the interest of unity and integrity of the country.
- The work of the Union and the state governments, which directly affects the ‘local people’ must be carried out in the local language.
- Central control over radio and television should be relaxed and the individual kendras should be free to decide about the timing for the relay of national hook-up programmes.
- It favoured amendments for sharing certain taxes between the Centre and the states, even though it generally opposed the curtailment of the Centre’s powers.
- In the financial sphere it did not favour any drastic changes in the basic scheme of division of taxes but favoured sharing of corporation tax and levy of consignment tax.
- It did not favour disbanding of all India Services in the interest of the country’s integrity. Instead it favoured new all India Services.
- It made a strong case for inter-state Councils but insisted that these should be used only for the purpose mentioned in Article 263 of the Constitution.
- It favoured retention of the National Development Council and suggested activation of the Zonal Councils.
- It found the present division of functions between the Finance Commission and the Planning Commission as reasonable and favoured continuance of this arrangement.
- It favoured determination of terms of reference of the Finance Commission in consultation with the state governments. It also suggested setting up of similar expert bodies at the state level.
Neither the Congress (I) Government nor the NationalFront Government accepted the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
After the Congress (I) government came to powerunder P.V. Narasimha Rao, it decided to implement some of the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
- The Territorial Army is a citizens’ volunteer force, which functions on a part-time basis.
- Established in 1949, it is designed to give the citizens an opportunity to receive military training in their leisure hours.
- They serve the country in times of emergency by relieving the Army of Static duties and assist the civil authorities in dealing with natural calamities, maintenance of essential services in critical situations and providing units for the regular Army, if and when required.
- All able-bodie persons in the age group of 18-42, who possess the requisite qualifications, are eligible to join as officers or as other ranks.
Five Provisions of the Constitution Which can be Amended by Simple Majority Vote of Parliament
- Provisions relating to the citizenship of India. (Article 11)
- Provisions relating to the salaries and allowances of Member of Parliament. (Article 106)
- Provisions relating to number of judges in the Supreme Court. (Article 123 (1))
- Provisions relating to appeals to the Supreme Court. (Article 133-3)
- Provisions relating to a review of the judgement of the Supreme Court. (Article 13)
Five Provisions Which can be Amended by a Special Majority
- Place and manner of the election of President of India. (Article 54 and 55).
- Extent of executive powers of the Union. (Article 73.)
- Extent of executive powers of the states; Article 167.
- Provisions relating to representations of states in Parliament. (Article 81 and Schedule IV.)
- Provisions relating to amendments of Art. 368.
Zonal councils were set up under the StateReorganisation Act, 1956, to ensure greater cooperation amongst states in the field of planning and other matters of national importance.
The Act divided the country into five zones and provided a zonal council in each zone.
- The Northern Zone consists of Punjab, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
- The Central Zone consists of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
- The Eastern Zone consists of Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
- The Western Zone consists of Maharashtra, Goa and Gujarat.
- The Southern Zone consists of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
Each Zonal Council consists of:
- a Union Minister nominated by the President;
- the Chief Minister of each state in the zone;
- two ministers from each state in the zone, nominated by the governors of the respective states; and
- one member from each Union territories included in the zone, nominated by the President.
In addition, each Zonal Council can associate certain members nominated by the Planning Commission, the secretaries of states, and development commissioners of states in the zones. Generally the Zonal Councils hold separate meetings, but two or more Zonal Councils can hold joint meetings. These joint meetings are presided over by the Union Home Minister.
Zonal councils discuss matters of common concernto the member states relating to economic and social planning, border disputes, inter-state transport etc. and render necessary advice to the governments of the concerned states as well as the Union government.