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The Land of Snow: Greenland Class 5 Notes SST

"The Land of Snow"! Our planet Earth has two special regions known as the polar regions. The area around the North Pole is called the Arctic Ocean, bordered by continents like Asia, Europe, and North America. On the other end of the Earth, around the South Pole, lies the continent of Antarctica.

Greenland

Greenland, the biggest island on Earth, sits close to the North Pole. It's covered in snow and ice all year long. The people who first lived there are called the Inuits. They have a special name for their country, Kalaallit Nunaat, which means 'Land of the People'.

GreenlandGreenland

Location

Greenland is found northeast of North America. Most of the island is above the Arctic Circle. It's separated from the northern islands of Canada by the Baffin Bay and the Davis Strait. Greenland belongs to Denmark.

Artic RegionArtic Region

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Land 

Greenland is a big island covering about 21.5 lakh square kilometres. Most of it looks white because around 80 per cent of the land is always covered in snow and ice. 

  • The ice sheet on Greenland is very thick, about 1,500 meters on average, and some of it may have been there since the last ice age. 
  • Sometimes, large chunks of ice break off from the ice sheets and float in the sea; we call these icebergs. 
  • They look like giant frozen mountains in the water. It's hard to see them because of thick fog, and they can be dangerous for ships that sail in this area.

Climate 

Greenland has a very cold Arctic climate. Winters are long and freezing, with weeks where the Sun doesn't rise, and heavy snowfall and icy winds are common. Summers are short and cool, with sunny weather, especially along the coast. Even though the Sun shines continuously for weeks, it remains cold.

Climate of GreenlandClimate of Greenland

Vegetation

During summer in Greenland, seeds sprout and plants start growing. However, only certain types of plants like mosses, lichens, grasses, and bushes can grow here. Some flowers bloom during springtime. But both summer and spring are very short . Greenland doesn't have forests, and because of the cold weather, crops can't grow here.

The Land of Snow: Greenland Class 5 Notes SST

Wildlife

In Greenland, only animals with thick fur or ones that can handle extreme cold can live there. People use huskies, which are dog breeds similar to wolves, for hunting and pulling sleds.

Huskies pulling sledegeHuskies pulling sledege

Life of the people in Greenland 

The Inuits, also known as Eskimos, came to Greenland from North America a long time ago and settled there. They've adapted to the tough weather conditions over time.

  • Inuits are typically short and sturdy, with flat faces, narrow eyes, and yellowish skin.
  • They wear clothes made from seal skins, like parkas with hoods, double trousers, and tall boots to stay warm. 
  • During winter, people in the far north build igloos from large blocks of ice for shelter. 
  • These igloos have a hole in the top for smoke to escape and are lined with animal skins. 
  • In summer, they live in tents made of animal hide called tou pigs. Nowadays, many live in modern houses. 
  • Inuits are hardworking, cheerful, and welcoming. They used to survive by hunting, fishing, and gathering plants, but now they can buy things from other countries.

An Insuit FamilyAn Insuit Family

Question for Chapter Notes: The Land of Snow: Greenland
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What is the main factor that contributes to the white appearance of Greenland?
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Occupation 

Inuits are skilled at fishing and hunting. They hunt animals for their meat, skin, and fat. In the past, they used harpoons, but now they use automatic rifles. 

  • For hunting sea animals, they use small boats called kayaks, and for whales, they use broader boats called umiaks, which are also used for transportation. 
  • On land, they use sledges. In recent times, their lifestyle has changed a lot. Now they use motorboats and motorized sledges. 
  • Many Inuits work in mines and oilfields, and lots of them have moved to towns and cities.

MotorboatsMotorboats

Cities

The thick ice sheet limits where people can live, so most settlements are along the coast in Greenland. There are only a few big towns there. Nuuk, also known as Godthab, is the capital and the largest city. Sisimiut and Ilulissat are other major cities. The whole population of Greenland is about 56,000 people.

The Land of Snow: Greenland Class 5 Notes SST

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FAQs on The Land of Snow: Greenland Class 5 Notes SST

1. What is the main occupation of the people in Greenland?
Ans. The main occupation of the people in Greenland is fishing and hunting, as well as tourism and government jobs.
2. What are some of the major cities in Greenland?
Ans. Some of the major cities in Greenland include Nuuk (the capital), Ilulissat, Sisimiut, and Qaqortoq.
3. How do people in Greenland adapt to the cold climate in their daily lives?
Ans. People in Greenland wear traditional clothing made from animal skins and fur to stay warm, and they also use sled dogs for transportation in the winter.
4. What challenges do the people in Greenland face due to their remote location?
Ans. The people in Greenland face challenges such as limited access to goods and services, high costs of living, and dependence on imports for many essential items.
5. What is the traditional diet of the people in Greenland?
Ans. The traditional diet of the people in Greenland includes fish, whale meat, seal, and other wildlife, as well as berries and roots gathered from the land.
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