UPSC : The Maratha Kingdom and Confederacy UPSC Notes | EduRev
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- The most important cultural factor responsible for the rise of the Marathas was the emergence of Maharashtra dharma and unifying role of religious reformers.
- The Maratha saint who exercised a profound influence on the minds of his countrymen and inspired them with ideals of social reform and national regeneration was Samarth Ramdas.
- Dadaji Kondadeva was Shivaji’s guardian tutor.
- Shivaji’s first trial of strength with the Mughals was his raid on the Mughal districts of Ahmadnagar and Junnar.
- The chief gain to Shivaji from his two raids on Surat in 1664 and 1670 was a lot of booty.
- Jai Singh besieged the fort of Purandhar, because it was located at the heart of Shivaji’s territories and he had lodged his family and treasure there.
- The immediate objective of the Treaty of Purandhar was to throw a bone of contention between Shivaji and the ruler of Bijapur.
- The last and the longest campaign conducted by Shivaji was against Karnatak and Tamil Nadu.
- The most brilliant achievement of Shivaji was uniting together the Marathas into a mighty nation.
- Mirza Raja Jai Singh, instead of completely annihilating Shivaji, concluded the Treaty of Purandhar with him, because Raja Jai Singh wanted to overthrow the Adilshahi Sultan of Bijapur with the help of Shivaji.
Fig: Raja Jai Singh
- One of the ashta pradhans who did not hold a military command besides his civil duties, was Pandit rao or the royal chaplain.
- In the revenue system introduced by Shivaji, the revenue was collected through directly by the state officials.
- Kathi was the unit of measurement of land in the Maratha dominion.
- Maratha state’s share in the produce of the land was 40 per cent.
- The primary motive for levying chauth and sardeshmukhi by Shivaji was to augment the financial resources of the state.
- Shivaji built a considerable fleet which was stationed at Kolaba.
- After the fall of Raigarh to the Mughals, the next capital of the Maratha government was Satara.
- Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadav, two able and active Maratha generals, were the heroes of Maratha history during the reign of Rajaram.
- After Rajaram’s death his widow Tarabai ruled on behalf of Shivaji I
- The Peshwas were Chitpawan Bahmins.
- The Peshwa-controlled Confederacy dissolved into five virtually independent Maratha states after the Third Battle of Panipat (1761)
- Balaji Bajirao is popularly known as Nana Saheb.
Fig: Balaji Bajirao
- The Peshwa became the official head of the Maratha Confederacy and as a symbol of this fact, the headquarters of the government was shifted to Poona during the Peshwaship of Nana Saheb.
- The Maratha power reached its zenith during the Peshwaship of Balaji II.
- The long-term effect of admitting mercenaries of all description, with a view to adopting western modes of warfare, by Balaji Bajirao was that the army lost its national character and it became difficult to maintain proper discipline and control.
- After the third battle of Panipat, the lost fortunes of the Maratha eempire were restored by Peshwa Madhav Rao I.
- The most important achievement of Madhav Rao was that he improved the moral tone of the Maratha administration.
- The Peshwaship was abolished by the English at the time of Peshwa Bajirao II
- The huzur daftar was the Peshwa’s Secretariat at Pune.
- The area under the control of kama vistar was known as Pargana.
- At the time of the third battle of Panipat, the Peshwa was Balaji Bajirao
- The most famous of Peshwa Bajirao I’s many achievements was the North Indian expedition of 1737-38.
- The Rajputs and the Jats remained aloof in the third battle of Panipat because Balaji’s imperial policy was based on impolitic alienation of these two races.
- The maximum share out of the chauth collections went to the Maratha chief.
- The Marathas were forced to open offensive in the third battle of Panipat because the Maratha soldiers and horses were facing starvation and death due to scarcity of food.
- The most infamous character in the Maratha history is that of Raghunath Rao.
- The revenue policy of the Peshwas was based on the principle of securing prosperity of the tax-payer.
- The Maratha chief who did not join the alliance against the English at first and took the field only when it was too late, was Holkar.
- The Maratha artillery in the third battle of Panipat was commanded by Ibrahim Khan Gardi.
Fig: Ibrahim Khan Gardi
- The commander-in-chief of the Maratha troops in the third battle of Panipat was Viswas Rao.
- An eyewitness account of the third battle of Panipat has been provided be the historian Kashiraj Pandit.
- The last Peshwas who became pensioner of the British and lived for more than thirty years at Bithur near Kanpur was Bajirao II.
- The Maratha navy in the eighteenth century was developed by the Angrias.
- The Maratha state was converted “from an organic mass into an inorganic mass” as a consequence of the saranjami system.
- The two Maratha states which continuously remained hostile to each other were, Holkar—Cindia.