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The Partnership Act, 1932 (Part - 2) - Business Law Notes | Study Business Law - B Com

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Section33 

EXPULSION OF A PARTNER. 

(1) A partner may not be expelled from a firm by any majority of the partners, save in the exercise in good faith or powers conferred by contract between the partners.

(2) The provisions of sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) of section 32 shall apply to an expelled partner as if he were a retired partner. 

Section34 

INSOLVENCY OF A PARTNER. 

(1) Where a partner in a firm is adjudicated an insolvent, he ceases to be a partner on the date on which the order of adjudication is made, whether or not the firm is thereby dissolved.

(2) Where under a contract between the partners the firm is not dissolved by the adjudication of a partner as an insolvent, the estate of a partner so adjudicated is not liable for any act of the firm and the firm is not liable for any act of the insolvent, done after the date on which the order of adjudication is made. 

Section35 

LIABILITY OF ESTATE OF DECEASED PARTNER. 

Where under a contract between the partners the firm is not dissolved by the death of a partner, the estate of a deceased partner is not liable for any act of the firm done after his death.

Section36 

RIGHTS OF OUTGOING PARTNER TO CARRY ON COMPETING BUSINESS. 

(1) An outgoing partner may carry on a business competing with that of the firm and he may advertise such business, but subject, to contract to the contrary, he may not

(a) use the firm-name,

(b) represent himself as carrying on the business of the firm, or

(c) solicit the custom of persons who were dealing with the firm before he ceased to be a partner.

(2) AGREEMENT IN RESTRAINT OF TRADE. 

A partner may make an agreement with his partners that on ceasing to be a partner he will not carry on any business similar to that of the firm within a specified period or within specified local limits; and, notwithstanding anything contained in section 27 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, such agreement shall be valid if the restrictions imposed are reasonable. 

Section37

RIGHT OF OUTGOING PARTNER IN CERTAIN CASES TO SHARE SUBSEQUENT PROFITS. 

Where any member of a firm has died or otherwise ceased to be a partner, and the surviving or continuing partners carry on the business of the firm with the property of the firm without any final settlement of accounts as between them and the outgoing partner or his estate, then, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, the outgoing partner or his estate is entitled at the option of himself or his representatives to such share of the profits made since he ceased to be a partner as may be attributable to the use of his share of the property of the firm or to interest at the rate of six per cent. per annum on the amount of his share in the property of the firm : 
Provided that where by contract between the partners an option is given to surviving or continuing partners to purchase the interest of a deceased or outgoing partner, and that option is duly exercised, the estate of the deceased partner, or the outgoing partner of his estate, as the case may be, is not entitled to any further or other share of profits, but if any partner assuming to act in exercise of the option does not in all material respects comply with the terms thereof, he is liable to account under the foregoing provisions of this section.

Section38 

REVOCATION OF CONTINUING GUARANTEE BY CHANGE IN FIRM. 

A continuing guarantee given to a firm, or to a third party in respect of the transactions of a firm, is in the absence of agreement to the contrary, revoked as to future transactions from the date of any change in the constitution of the firm. 

Section39 DISSOLUTION OF A FIRM. 

The dissolution of a partnership between all the partners of a firm is called the "dissolution of the firm".

Section40 

DISSOLUTION BY AGREEMENT. 

A firm may be dissolved with the consent of all the partners or in accordance with a contract between the partners.

Section41 

COMPULSORY DISSOLUTION. 

A firm is dissolved

(a) by the adjudication of all the partners or of all the partners but one as insolvent, or 

(b) by the happening of any event which makes it unlawful for the business of the firm to be carried on or for the partners to carry it on in partnership : Provided that, where more than one separate adventure or undertaking is carried on by the firm, the illegality of one or more shall not of itself cause the dissolution of the firm in respect of its lawful adventures and undertakings 

Section42 

DISSOLUTION ON THE HAPPENING OF CERTAIN CONTINGENCIES. 

Subject to contract between the partners a firm is dissolved

(a) if constituted for a fixed term, by the expiry of that term;

(b) if constituted to carry out one or more adventures or undertakings, by the completion thereof; (c) by the death of a partner; and (d) by the adjudication of a partner as an insolvent. 

Section43 

DISSOLUTION BY NOTICE OF PARTNERSHIP AT WILL. 

(1) Where the partnership is at will, the firm may be dissolved by any partner giving notice in writing to all the other partners of his intention to dissolve the firm.

(2) The firm is dissolved as from the date mentioned in the notice as the date of dissolution or, if no date is so mentioned, as from the date of the communication of the notice.

Section44 

DISSOLUTION BY THE COURT. 

At the suit of a partner, the Court may dissolve a firm on any of the following grounds, namely :-

(a) that a partner has become of unsound mind, in which case the suit may be brought as well by the next friend of the partner who has become of unsound mind as by any other partner;

(b) that a partner, other than the partner suing, has become in any way permanently incapable of performing his duties as partner;

(c) that a partner, other than the partner suing, is guilty of conduct which is likely to affect prejudicially the carrying on of the business regard being had to the nature of the business;

(d) that a partner, other than the partner suing, wilfully or persistently commits breach of agreements relating to the management of the affairs of the firm of the conduct of its business; or otherwise so conducts himself in matters relating to the business that it is not reasonably practicable for the other partners to carry on the business in partnership with him; 

(e) that a partner, other than the partner suing, has in any way transferred the whole of his interest in the firm to a third party, or has allowed his share to be charged under the provisions of rule 49 of Order XXI of the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, or has allowed it to be sold in the recovery of arrears of land revenue or of any dues recoverable as arrears of land revenue due by the partner; 

(f) that the business of the firm cannot be carried on save at a loss; or

(g) on any other ground which renders it just and equitable that the firm should be dissolved. 

Section45 

LIABILITY FOR ACTS OF PARTNERS DONE AFTER DISSOLUTION. 

(1) Notwithstanding the dissolution of a firm, the partners continue to be liable as such to third parties for any act done by any of them which would have been an act of the firm, if done before the dissolution, until public notice is given of the dissolution : 

Provided that the estate of a partner who dies, or who is adjudicated an insolvent, or of a partner who, not having been known to the person dealing with the firm to be a partner, retires from the firm, is not liable under this section for acts done after the date on which he ceases to be a partner. (2) Notices under sub-section (1) may be given by any partner. 

Section46 

RIGHT OF PARTNERS TO HAVE BUSINESS WOUND UP AFTER DISSOLUTION. 

On the dissolution of a firm every partner or his representative is entitled, as against all the other partners or their representatives, to have the property of the firm applied in payment of the debts and liabilities of the firm, and to have the surplus distributed among the partners or which representatives according to their rights. 

Section47 

CONTINUING AUTHORITY OF PARTNERS FOR PURPOSES OF WINDING UP. 

After the dissolution of a firm the authority of each partner to bind the firm, and the other mutual rights and obligations of the partners, continue notwithstanding the dissolution, so far as may be necessary to wind up the affairs of the firm and to complete transactions begun but unfinished at the time of the dissolution, but not otherwise : 

Provided that the firm is in no case bound by the acts of a partner who had been adjudicated insolvent, but this proviso does not affect the liability of any person who has after the adjudication represented himself or knowingly permitted himself to be represented as a partner of the insolvent. 

Section48 

MODE OF SETTLEMENT OF ACCOUNTS BETWEEN PARTNERS. 

In settling the accounts of a firm after dissolution, the following rules shall, subject to agreement by the partners, be observed :

(a) Losses, including deficiencies of capital, shall be paid first out of profits, next out of capital, and, lastly, if necessary, by the partners individually in the proportions in which they were entitled to share profits;

(b) the assets of the firm, including any sums contributed by the partners to make up deficiencies of capital, shall be applied in the following manner and order :

(i) in paying the debts of the firm to third parties;

(ii) in paying to each partner rateably what is due to him from the firm for advances as distinguished from capital;

(iii) in paying to each partner rateably what is due to him on account of capital; and

(iv) the residue, if any, shall be divided among the partners in the proportions in which they were entitled to share profits. 

Section49 

PAYMENT OF FIRM'S DEBTS AND OF SEPARATE DEBTS. 

Where there are joint debts due from the firm, and also separate debts due from any partner, the property of the firm shall be applied in the first instance in payment of the debts of the firm, and, if there is any surplus, then the share of each partner shall be applied in payment of his separate debts or paid to him. The separate property of any partner shall he applied first in the payment of his separate debts, and the surplus (if any) in payment of the debts of the firm. 

Section50 

PERSONAL PROFITS EARNED AFTER DISSOLUTION. 

Subject to contract between the partners, the provisions of clause (a) of section 16 shall apply to transactions by any surviving partner or by the representatives of deceased partner, undertaken after the firm is dissolved on account of the death of a partner and before its affairs have been completely wound up :

Provided that where any partner or his representative has bought the good will of the firm, nothing in the section shall affect his right to use the firm-name. 

Section51 

RETURN OF PREMIUM ON PREMATURE DISSOLUTION. 

Where a partner has paid a premium on entering into partnership for a fixed term, and the firm is dissolved before the expiration of that term otherwise than by the death of a partner, he shall be entitled to repayment of the premium or of such part thereof as may be reasonable, regard being had to the terms upon which he became a partner, and to the length of time during which he was a partner, unless -

(a) the dissolution is mainly due to his own misconduct, or

(b) the dissolution is in pursuance of an agreement containing no provision for the return of the premium or any part of it.

Section52 

RIGHTS WHERE PARTNERSHIP CONTRACT IS RESCINDED FOR FRAUD OR MISREPRESENTATION. 

Where a contract creating partnership is rescinded on the ground of fraud or misrepresentation of any of the parties thereto, the party entitled to rescind is, without prejudice to any other right, entitle -

(a) to a lien on, or right of retention of, the surplus of the assets of the firm remaining after the debts of the firm have been paid, for any sum paid by him for the purchase of a share in the firm and for any capital contributed by him;

(b) to rank as a creditor of the firm in respect of any payment made by him towards the debts of the firm; and

(c) to he indemnified by the partner or partners guilty of fraud or misrepresentation against all the debts of the firm.

Section53 

RIGHT TO RESTRAIN FROM USE OF FIRM-NAME OR FIRM-PROPERTY. 

After a firm is dissolved, every partner or his representative may, in the absence of a contract between the partners to the contrary, restrain any other partner or his representative from carrying on a similar business in the firm-name or from using any of the property of the firm for his own benefit, until the affairs of the firm have been completely wound up : Provided that where any partner or his representative has brought the goodwill of the firm, nothing in this section shall affect his right to use the firm-name. 

Section54 

AGREEMENTS IN RESTRAINT OF TRADE. 

Partners may, upon or in anticipation of the dissolution of the firm, make an agreement that some or all of them will not carry on a business similar to that of the firm within a specified period or within specified local limits and notwithstanding anything contained in section 27, of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, such agreement shall be valid if the restrictions imposed are reasonable. 

Section55 

SALE OF GOODWILL AFTER DISSOLUTION. 

(1) In settling the accounts of a firm after dissolution, the goodwill shall, subject to contract between the partners, be included in the assets, and it may be sold either separately or along with other property of the firm.

(2) RIGHTS OF BUYER AND SELLER OF GOODWILL. 

Where the goodwill of a firm is sold after dissolution, a partner may carry on a business competing with that of the buyer and he may advertise such business, but, subject to agreement between him and the buyer, he may not 

(a) use the firm-name,

(b) represent himself as carrying on the business of the firm, or

(c) solicit the custom of persons who were dealing with the firm before its dissolution.

(3) AGREEMENTS IN RESTRAINT OF TRADE. 

Any partner may upon the sale of the goodwill of a firm, make an agreement with the buyer that such partner will not carry on any business similar to that of the firm within a specified period or within specified local limits, and, notwithstanding anything contained in section 27 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 such agreement shall be valid if the restrictions are reasonable. 

Section56 

POWER TO EXEMPT FROM APPLICATION OF THIS CHAPTER. 

The State Government of any State may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to that State or to any part thereof specified in the notification.

Section57

APPOINTMENT OF REGISTRAR OF FIRMS AND DEPUTY AND ASSISTANT REGISTRARS OF FIRMS. 

(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint a Registrar of Firms who shall exercise, perform and discharge the powers, functions and duties of the Register under this Act throughout the State of Maharashtra.

(2) The State Government may likewise appoint one or more Deputy Registrars of Firms and Assistant Registrars of Firms who shall exercise, perform and discharge all or such of the powers, functions and duties of the Registrar and in such areas as the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

(3) The officers appointed under sub-section (1) and sub-section (2) shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code. 

Section58 

APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION. 

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section of sub-section (1A), the registration of a firm effected by sending by post or delivering to the Registrar of the area in which any place of business of the firm is situated or proposed to be situated, a statement in the prescribed form and accompanied by the prescribed fee and a true copy of the deed of partnership stating :

(a) the firm-name, 

(aa) the nature of business of the firm;

(b) the place or principal place of business of the firm,

(c) the names of any other places where the firm carries on business,

(d) the date when each partner joined the firm,

(e) the names in full and permanent addresses of the partners, and

(f) the duration of the firm.

The statement shall be signed by all the partners, or by their agents specially authorised in this behalf.

(1A) The statement under sub-section (1) shall be sent or delivered to the Registrar within a period of one year from the date of constitution of the firm :

Provided that in the case of any firm carrying on business on or before the date of commencement of the Indian Partnership (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 1984, such statement shall be sent or delivered to the Registrar within a period of one year firm such date. 

(2) Each person signing the statement shall also verify it in the manner prescribed.

(3) A firm shall not have any of the names or emblems specified in the Schedule to the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950, or any colourable imitation thereof, unless permitted so to do under that Act, or any name which is likely to be associated by the public with the name of any other firm on account of similarity, or any name which, in the opinion of the Registrar, for reasons to be recorded in writing, is undesirable :

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any firm registered under any such name before the date of the commencement of the Indian Partnership (Maharashtra Amendment) Act, 1984.

(4) Any person aggrieved by an order of the Registrar under sub-section (3), may, within 30 days from the date of communication of such order, appeal to the officer not below the rank of Deputy Secretary to Government authorised by the State Government in this behalf, in such manner, and on payment of such fee, as may be prescribed. On receipt of any such appeal, the authorised officer shall, after giving an opportunity of being heard to the appellant, decide the appeal, and his decision shall be final.

Section59 

REGISTRATION. 

(1) When the Registrar is satisfied that the provisions of section 58 have been duly complied with, he shall record an entry of the statement in a register called the Register of Firms, and shall file the statement. [19 On the date such entry is recorded and such statement is filed, the firm shall be deemed to be registered.

(2) The firm, which is registered, shall use the brackets and word (Registered) immediately after its name. 

Section59A-1

LATE REGISTRATION ON PAYMENT OF PENALTY. 

If the statement in respect of any firm is not sent or delivered to the Registrar within the time specified in sub-section (1A) of section 58, then the firm may be registered on payment, to the Registrar, of a penalty of one hundred rupees per year of delay or a part thereof. 

Section59A 

DELETION AND ADDITION OF CERTAIN ENTRIES RELATING TO CERTAIN FIRMS, BY REASON OF REORGANISATION OF STATES. 

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, a Registrar of Firms appointed for any area by the Government of Bombay may, by order in writing, amend the Register of Firms maintained by him by deleting therefrom the entries relating to any firm, whose place of business has, by reason of the reorganisation of States under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, ceased to be situated in the State of Bombay. The Registrar may likewise and without any charge or fee therefor amend the Register by adding thereto the entries relating to any firm included in the Register of another State but whose place of business has, by reason of such reorganisation, become part of the area within his jurisdiction in the State of Bombay : 

Provided that the Registrar shall, before passing any order under this sub-section, make such inquiry as he deems necessary and give notice to the firm and the Registrar of the State concerned.

(2) After such amendment, the Registrar shall cease to perform the functions of a Registrar in respect of any firm the entries relating to which have been deleted as aforesaid and shall perform all the functions of a Registrar in respect of any firm the entries relating to which are added as aforesaid.

(3) Any person aggrieved by an order under sub-section (1) may appeal to such authority, and within such time, as may be specified in this behalf by the Government of Bombay notification in the Official Gazette; and such authority shall pass such order on the appeal as it thinks fit.

(4) An order of a Registrar under sub-section (1), or when an appeal has been preferred against it under sub-section (3), the order of the appellate authority, shall be final. 

(5) The provisions of this section shall cease to be in force from such date as the Government of Bombay may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. 

Section59B 

DELETION OF ENTRIES RELATING TO CERTAIN FIRMS BY REASON OF FORMATION OF GUJARAT STATE.  

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter, a Registrar of Firms appointed for any area by the Government of Maharashtra may, by order in writing, amend the Register of Firms maintained by him by deleting therefrom the entries relating to any firm, whose place of business has, by reason of the formation of the State of Gujarat by the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960, ceased to be situated in the State of Maharashtra : Provided that the Registrar shall, before passing any order under this sub-section, make such inquiry as he deems necessary and give notice to the firm and the Registrar of the State of Gujarat.

(2) After such amendment, the Registrar shall cease to perform the functions of a Registrar in respect of any firm the entries relating to which have been deleted as aforesaid. 

(3) Any person aggrieved by an order under sub-section (1) may appeal to such authority and within such time, as may be specified in this behalf by the Government of Maharashtra, by notification in the Official Gazette and such authority shall pass such order on the appeal as it thinks fit.

(4) An order of a Registrar under sub-section (1), or where an appeal has been preferred against it under sub-section (3), the order of the appellate authority shall be final. 

Section60 

RECORDING OF ALTERATIONS IN FIRM-NAME, NATURE OF BUSINESS AND PRINCIPAL PLACE OF BUSINESS. 

(1) When an alteration is made in the firm name or in the nature of business of a firm or in the location of the principal place of business of a registered firm, a statement shall be sent to the Registrar, within a period of 90 days from the date of making such alteration, accompanied by the prescribed fee, specifying the alteration and signed and verified in the manner required under section 58.

(2) When the Registrar is satisfied that the provisions of sub-section (1) have been duly complied with, he shall amend the entry relating to the firm in the Register of Firms in accordance with the statement, and shall file it alongwith the statement relating to the firm filed under section 59. 

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