The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
 
Chapter 1 
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 
 
? Frederic Sorrieu  
He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1948 that visualized the dream of a 
world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics. 
? Nineteenth Century 
Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states. 
? Nationalism 
A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and 
belief in the political identity of one?s country are the basic attributes of nationalism. 
? Nation State 
A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a 
complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19
th
 century Europe as a 
result of the growth of nationalism. 
? Modern State 
A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and 
population. 
? Absolutist Government 
A system of government wherein limitless powers are vested in a single person or body. It 
is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not 
answerable to anybody.    
? French Revolution (1789)  
It marks the beginning of nationalism. 
Salient features of the French Revolution were: 
? France was under absolute monarchy in 1789. 
? The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people. 
? Ideas of La patrie (the fatherhood) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted. 
? New French Flag, the tricolour, adopted replacing the royal standard. 
? Estates General elected by citizens and renamed the National Assembly. 
? A centralized political system established. 
? Internal custom dues abolished. 
? Uniform weights and measures adopted. 
? French became the language of the nation. 
? French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s 
with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers. 
? Napoleon (1769-1821) 
? Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. 
? Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. 
? Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804) 
Page 2


 
 
Chapter 1 
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 
 
? Frederic Sorrieu  
He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1948 that visualized the dream of a 
world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics. 
? Nineteenth Century 
Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states. 
? Nationalism 
A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and 
belief in the political identity of one?s country are the basic attributes of nationalism. 
? Nation State 
A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a 
complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19
th
 century Europe as a 
result of the growth of nationalism. 
? Modern State 
A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and 
population. 
? Absolutist Government 
A system of government wherein limitless powers are vested in a single person or body. It 
is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not 
answerable to anybody.    
? French Revolution (1789)  
It marks the beginning of nationalism. 
Salient features of the French Revolution were: 
? France was under absolute monarchy in 1789. 
? The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people. 
? Ideas of La patrie (the fatherhood) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted. 
? New French Flag, the tricolour, adopted replacing the royal standard. 
? Estates General elected by citizens and renamed the National Assembly. 
? A centralized political system established. 
? Internal custom dues abolished. 
? Uniform weights and measures adopted. 
? French became the language of the nation. 
? French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s 
with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers. 
? Napoleon (1769-1821) 
? Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. 
? Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. 
? Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804) 
 
 
? Established equality before law. 
? Abolished all privileges based on birth. 
? Granted the right to property to French citizens. 
? Simplified administrative divisions. 
? Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom. 
? Removed restrictions on guilds in towns. 
? Improved transport and communication. 
? Militarily, Napoleon proved to be an oppressor for the people of the conquered 
territories. Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made 
mandatory. 
? Europe in the mid-18
th
 Century 
? No nation states because Europeans never saw themselves as sharing a common 
identity or culture. E.g., The Habsburg Empire of Austria–Hungary comprised 
French, Italian and German-speaking people.  
? Europe was broadly divided into two classes during this period namely: 
Aristocracy    
? The land owning class. 
? Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically. 
? Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society. 
? Families were connected through marriage. 
Peasantry 
? Tenants and small land owners who worked as serfs.  
? Cultivated the lands of the aristocratic lords. 
? The growth of trade and industrial production facilitated the growth of towns and 
rise of a commercial class of traders. Consequently, the new conscious, educated, 
liberal middle class emerged and popularized nationalism and stood for the abolition 
of aristocracy.  
? Liberal Nationalism 
? Means: 
? Individual freedom 
? Equality before law 
? Government by consent 
? Freedom of markets  
? Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and 
capital 
? Liberalism became the main concern in Europe after the French Revolution 
because: 
? Universal Adult Suffrage was not granted to the people by the Napoleonic 
Code. Men without property and women were denied the right to vote. 
? Women were made subject to the authority of men. 
Page 3


 
 
Chapter 1 
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 
 
? Frederic Sorrieu  
He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1948 that visualized the dream of a 
world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics. 
? Nineteenth Century 
Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states. 
? Nationalism 
A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and 
belief in the political identity of one?s country are the basic attributes of nationalism. 
? Nation State 
A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a 
complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19
th
 century Europe as a 
result of the growth of nationalism. 
? Modern State 
A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and 
population. 
? Absolutist Government 
A system of government wherein limitless powers are vested in a single person or body. It 
is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not 
answerable to anybody.    
? French Revolution (1789)  
It marks the beginning of nationalism. 
Salient features of the French Revolution were: 
? France was under absolute monarchy in 1789. 
? The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people. 
? Ideas of La patrie (the fatherhood) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted. 
? New French Flag, the tricolour, adopted replacing the royal standard. 
? Estates General elected by citizens and renamed the National Assembly. 
? A centralized political system established. 
? Internal custom dues abolished. 
? Uniform weights and measures adopted. 
? French became the language of the nation. 
? French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s 
with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers. 
? Napoleon (1769-1821) 
? Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. 
? Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. 
? Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804) 
 
 
? Established equality before law. 
? Abolished all privileges based on birth. 
? Granted the right to property to French citizens. 
? Simplified administrative divisions. 
? Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom. 
? Removed restrictions on guilds in towns. 
? Improved transport and communication. 
? Militarily, Napoleon proved to be an oppressor for the people of the conquered 
territories. Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made 
mandatory. 
? Europe in the mid-18
th
 Century 
? No nation states because Europeans never saw themselves as sharing a common 
identity or culture. E.g., The Habsburg Empire of Austria–Hungary comprised 
French, Italian and German-speaking people.  
? Europe was broadly divided into two classes during this period namely: 
Aristocracy    
? The land owning class. 
? Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically. 
? Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society. 
? Families were connected through marriage. 
Peasantry 
? Tenants and small land owners who worked as serfs.  
? Cultivated the lands of the aristocratic lords. 
? The growth of trade and industrial production facilitated the growth of towns and 
rise of a commercial class of traders. Consequently, the new conscious, educated, 
liberal middle class emerged and popularized nationalism and stood for the abolition 
of aristocracy.  
? Liberal Nationalism 
? Means: 
? Individual freedom 
? Equality before law 
? Government by consent 
? Freedom of markets  
? Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and 
capital 
? Liberalism became the main concern in Europe after the French Revolution 
because: 
? Universal Adult Suffrage was not granted to the people by the Napoleonic 
Code. Men without property and women were denied the right to vote. 
? Women were made subject to the authority of men. 
 
 
? Markets were not free as the 39 confederacies of France had their own laws 
which posed problems for the free movement of goods. 
? There were no standard weights and measures and no fixed rates of custom 
duties, which greatly affected the trade. 
? Liberalism fused with the French Revolution envisaged the 
? End of autocracy and clerical privileges 
? Introduction of a constitution and representative government 
? Inviolability of private property 
? Removal of trade restrictions 
? Freedom of markets 
? Zollverein 
A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and 
reduced the number of currencies to two from over thirty. 
? Conservatism 
Stands for the preservation of the traditional institutions of state and society such as the 
monarchy, the church, social hierarchies and family along with the modern changes 
introduced by Napoleon. Conservatism as a political ideology arose after the defeat of 
Napoleon in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo. The conservative regimes 
? Were autocratic 
? Were intolerant to criticism and dissent 
? Adopted the censorship of press for curbing the liberal ideals 
? Discouraged any questions that challenged their legitimacy 
? Congress of Vienna (1815) 
For drawing a new settlement for Europe and restoring the monarchies that were 
overthrown by Napoleon for creation of a new conservative order. 
The salient features of the treaty were as follows: 
? The Bourbon dynasty restored to power in France. 
? France was disposed of its conquered territories. 
? Kingdom of Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the North and 
Genoa was set up in the South for preventing French expansion in future. 
? Prussia was given new territories, including a portion of Saxony. 
? Austria got control over Northern Italy. 
? Russia got Poland. 
? Napoleon?s confederation of 39 states was not changed. 
? The Revolutionaries 
Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19
th
 century. 
Many secret societies were formed whose main aims were: 
? Training the revolutionaries and spreading their ideas throughout Europe. 
? Opposing monarchical governments established after the Vienna Congress of 1815. 
? Fighting for liberty and freedom from autocratic rule. 
Page 4


 
 
Chapter 1 
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 
 
? Frederic Sorrieu  
He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1948 that visualized the dream of a 
world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics. 
? Nineteenth Century 
Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states. 
? Nationalism 
A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and 
belief in the political identity of one?s country are the basic attributes of nationalism. 
? Nation State 
A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a 
complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19
th
 century Europe as a 
result of the growth of nationalism. 
? Modern State 
A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and 
population. 
? Absolutist Government 
A system of government wherein limitless powers are vested in a single person or body. It 
is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not 
answerable to anybody.    
? French Revolution (1789)  
It marks the beginning of nationalism. 
Salient features of the French Revolution were: 
? France was under absolute monarchy in 1789. 
? The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people. 
? Ideas of La patrie (the fatherhood) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted. 
? New French Flag, the tricolour, adopted replacing the royal standard. 
? Estates General elected by citizens and renamed the National Assembly. 
? A centralized political system established. 
? Internal custom dues abolished. 
? Uniform weights and measures adopted. 
? French became the language of the nation. 
? French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s 
with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers. 
? Napoleon (1769-1821) 
? Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. 
? Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. 
? Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804) 
 
 
? Established equality before law. 
? Abolished all privileges based on birth. 
? Granted the right to property to French citizens. 
? Simplified administrative divisions. 
? Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom. 
? Removed restrictions on guilds in towns. 
? Improved transport and communication. 
? Militarily, Napoleon proved to be an oppressor for the people of the conquered 
territories. Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made 
mandatory. 
? Europe in the mid-18
th
 Century 
? No nation states because Europeans never saw themselves as sharing a common 
identity or culture. E.g., The Habsburg Empire of Austria–Hungary comprised 
French, Italian and German-speaking people.  
? Europe was broadly divided into two classes during this period namely: 
Aristocracy    
? The land owning class. 
? Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically. 
? Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society. 
? Families were connected through marriage. 
Peasantry 
? Tenants and small land owners who worked as serfs.  
? Cultivated the lands of the aristocratic lords. 
? The growth of trade and industrial production facilitated the growth of towns and 
rise of a commercial class of traders. Consequently, the new conscious, educated, 
liberal middle class emerged and popularized nationalism and stood for the abolition 
of aristocracy.  
? Liberal Nationalism 
? Means: 
? Individual freedom 
? Equality before law 
? Government by consent 
? Freedom of markets  
? Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and 
capital 
? Liberalism became the main concern in Europe after the French Revolution 
because: 
? Universal Adult Suffrage was not granted to the people by the Napoleonic 
Code. Men without property and women were denied the right to vote. 
? Women were made subject to the authority of men. 
 
 
? Markets were not free as the 39 confederacies of France had their own laws 
which posed problems for the free movement of goods. 
? There were no standard weights and measures and no fixed rates of custom 
duties, which greatly affected the trade. 
? Liberalism fused with the French Revolution envisaged the 
? End of autocracy and clerical privileges 
? Introduction of a constitution and representative government 
? Inviolability of private property 
? Removal of trade restrictions 
? Freedom of markets 
? Zollverein 
A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and 
reduced the number of currencies to two from over thirty. 
? Conservatism 
Stands for the preservation of the traditional institutions of state and society such as the 
monarchy, the church, social hierarchies and family along with the modern changes 
introduced by Napoleon. Conservatism as a political ideology arose after the defeat of 
Napoleon in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo. The conservative regimes 
? Were autocratic 
? Were intolerant to criticism and dissent 
? Adopted the censorship of press for curbing the liberal ideals 
? Discouraged any questions that challenged their legitimacy 
? Congress of Vienna (1815) 
For drawing a new settlement for Europe and restoring the monarchies that were 
overthrown by Napoleon for creation of a new conservative order. 
The salient features of the treaty were as follows: 
? The Bourbon dynasty restored to power in France. 
? France was disposed of its conquered territories. 
? Kingdom of Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the North and 
Genoa was set up in the South for preventing French expansion in future. 
? Prussia was given new territories, including a portion of Saxony. 
? Austria got control over Northern Italy. 
? Russia got Poland. 
? Napoleon?s confederation of 39 states was not changed. 
? The Revolutionaries 
Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19
th
 century. 
Many secret societies were formed whose main aims were: 
? Training the revolutionaries and spreading their ideas throughout Europe. 
? Opposing monarchical governments established after the Vienna Congress of 1815. 
? Fighting for liberty and freedom from autocratic rule. 
 
 
? Emphasizing the idea of creation of nation states. 
? Giuseppe Mazzini 
? Italian revolutionary 
? Born in 1807. 
? Became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. 
? 1831: Sent into exile for attempting an upsurge in Liguria. 
? Founder of Young Italy at Marseilles and Young Europe at Berne, the two secret 
societies. 
? Believed in the unification of Italy into a republic. 
? Most vociferous enemy of monarchical form of government and conservative 
regimes. 
? Metternich described him as “The most dangerous enemy of our social order”. 
? The Age of Revolutions (1830-1848)  
? The consolidation of power by the conservative regime made liberalism and 
nationalism associated with revolution in many regions of Europe. 
? Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland 
experienced such revolutions. 
? The revolutionaries comprised professors, school teachers, clerks and members of 
the commercial middle class. 
? July Revolution, France (1830) 
? The Bourbon Kings, coronated after the Vienna Congress of 1815 were 
overthrown by liberal revolutionaries.  
? Louis Philippe was installed as a constitutional monarch. 
? Belgium broke away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands. 
? Greek Revolution (1830) 
? Greek War of Independence 
? Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire since 15
th
 century. 
? Growth of nationalism in Europe started Greek?s struggle for independence 
from the Ottoman rule in 1821. 
? Support from West European countries. 
? Poets and artists, who were inspired by the ancient Greek culture and 
literature, also supported the revolution. E.g., Lord Byron, the famous 
English Poet. 
? 1832: The Treaty of Constantinople recognized Greece as an independent 
nation. 
? Romanticism (1830s) 
A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. 
The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a 
common cultural past for arousing nationalism. 
Page 5


 
 
Chapter 1 
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe 
 
? Frederic Sorrieu  
He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1948 that visualized the dream of a 
world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics. 
? Nineteenth Century 
Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states. 
? Nationalism 
A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and 
belief in the political identity of one?s country are the basic attributes of nationalism. 
? Nation State 
A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a 
complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19
th
 century Europe as a 
result of the growth of nationalism. 
? Modern State 
A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and 
population. 
? Absolutist Government 
A system of government wherein limitless powers are vested in a single person or body. It 
is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not 
answerable to anybody.    
? French Revolution (1789)  
It marks the beginning of nationalism. 
Salient features of the French Revolution were: 
? France was under absolute monarchy in 1789. 
? The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people. 
? Ideas of La patrie (the fatherhood) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted. 
? New French Flag, the tricolour, adopted replacing the royal standard. 
? Estates General elected by citizens and renamed the National Assembly. 
? A centralized political system established. 
? Internal custom dues abolished. 
? Uniform weights and measures adopted. 
? French became the language of the nation. 
? French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s 
with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers. 
? Napoleon (1769-1821) 
? Ruled France from 1799 to 1815. 
? Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. 
? Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804) 
 
 
? Established equality before law. 
? Abolished all privileges based on birth. 
? Granted the right to property to French citizens. 
? Simplified administrative divisions. 
? Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom. 
? Removed restrictions on guilds in towns. 
? Improved transport and communication. 
? Militarily, Napoleon proved to be an oppressor for the people of the conquered 
territories. Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made 
mandatory. 
? Europe in the mid-18
th
 Century 
? No nation states because Europeans never saw themselves as sharing a common 
identity or culture. E.g., The Habsburg Empire of Austria–Hungary comprised 
French, Italian and German-speaking people.  
? Europe was broadly divided into two classes during this period namely: 
Aristocracy    
? The land owning class. 
? Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically. 
? Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society. 
? Families were connected through marriage. 
Peasantry 
? Tenants and small land owners who worked as serfs.  
? Cultivated the lands of the aristocratic lords. 
? The growth of trade and industrial production facilitated the growth of towns and 
rise of a commercial class of traders. Consequently, the new conscious, educated, 
liberal middle class emerged and popularized nationalism and stood for the abolition 
of aristocracy.  
? Liberal Nationalism 
? Means: 
? Individual freedom 
? Equality before law 
? Government by consent 
? Freedom of markets  
? Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and 
capital 
? Liberalism became the main concern in Europe after the French Revolution 
because: 
? Universal Adult Suffrage was not granted to the people by the Napoleonic 
Code. Men without property and women were denied the right to vote. 
? Women were made subject to the authority of men. 
 
 
? Markets were not free as the 39 confederacies of France had their own laws 
which posed problems for the free movement of goods. 
? There were no standard weights and measures and no fixed rates of custom 
duties, which greatly affected the trade. 
? Liberalism fused with the French Revolution envisaged the 
? End of autocracy and clerical privileges 
? Introduction of a constitution and representative government 
? Inviolability of private property 
? Removal of trade restrictions 
? Freedom of markets 
? Zollverein 
A customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. It abolished tariff barriers and 
reduced the number of currencies to two from over thirty. 
? Conservatism 
Stands for the preservation of the traditional institutions of state and society such as the 
monarchy, the church, social hierarchies and family along with the modern changes 
introduced by Napoleon. Conservatism as a political ideology arose after the defeat of 
Napoleon in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo. The conservative regimes 
? Were autocratic 
? Were intolerant to criticism and dissent 
? Adopted the censorship of press for curbing the liberal ideals 
? Discouraged any questions that challenged their legitimacy 
? Congress of Vienna (1815) 
For drawing a new settlement for Europe and restoring the monarchies that were 
overthrown by Napoleon for creation of a new conservative order. 
The salient features of the treaty were as follows: 
? The Bourbon dynasty restored to power in France. 
? France was disposed of its conquered territories. 
? Kingdom of Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the North and 
Genoa was set up in the South for preventing French expansion in future. 
? Prussia was given new territories, including a portion of Saxony. 
? Austria got control over Northern Italy. 
? Russia got Poland. 
? Napoleon?s confederation of 39 states was not changed. 
? The Revolutionaries 
Upholders of the idea of liberalism and against the conservative regimes of the 19
th
 century. 
Many secret societies were formed whose main aims were: 
? Training the revolutionaries and spreading their ideas throughout Europe. 
? Opposing monarchical governments established after the Vienna Congress of 1815. 
? Fighting for liberty and freedom from autocratic rule. 
 
 
? Emphasizing the idea of creation of nation states. 
? Giuseppe Mazzini 
? Italian revolutionary 
? Born in 1807. 
? Became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. 
? 1831: Sent into exile for attempting an upsurge in Liguria. 
? Founder of Young Italy at Marseilles and Young Europe at Berne, the two secret 
societies. 
? Believed in the unification of Italy into a republic. 
? Most vociferous enemy of monarchical form of government and conservative 
regimes. 
? Metternich described him as “The most dangerous enemy of our social order”. 
? The Age of Revolutions (1830-1848)  
? The consolidation of power by the conservative regime made liberalism and 
nationalism associated with revolution in many regions of Europe. 
? Italian and German states, the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, Ireland and Poland 
experienced such revolutions. 
? The revolutionaries comprised professors, school teachers, clerks and members of 
the commercial middle class. 
? July Revolution, France (1830) 
? The Bourbon Kings, coronated after the Vienna Congress of 1815 were 
overthrown by liberal revolutionaries.  
? Louis Philippe was installed as a constitutional monarch. 
? Belgium broke away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands. 
? Greek Revolution (1830) 
? Greek War of Independence 
? Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire since 15
th
 century. 
? Growth of nationalism in Europe started Greek?s struggle for independence 
from the Ottoman rule in 1821. 
? Support from West European countries. 
? Poets and artists, who were inspired by the ancient Greek culture and 
literature, also supported the revolution. E.g., Lord Byron, the famous 
English Poet. 
? 1832: The Treaty of Constantinople recognized Greece as an independent 
nation. 
? Romanticism (1830s) 
A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. 
The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a 
common cultural past for arousing nationalism. 
 
 
? German philosopher and romanticist Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) 
believed that true German culture can be discovered only among common people 
(das volk) through their practice of flock traditions. 
? Emphasized on vernacular languages and folklore for conveying their ideas to 
illiterate masses.  
? Nationalistic Feeling (1830s) 
The sense of recognizing the society and nation as “we” and the sharing of many traits by its 
members. Culture with art and poetry, stories and music played a major role in the shaping 
and expression of nationalistic feelings and nation. 
? Economic Condition of Europe after 1830 
? Great economic hardships were experienced in Europe. 
? The ratio of the rise of population was larger than that of employment generation. 
? Migration of rural population to cities led to overcrowded slums. 
? Small producers in towns (especially textile producing industries) were often ousted 
by the import of cheap machine-made goods from England. 
? Peasants still suffered under the burden of feudal dues and obligations in some 
regions of Europe. 
? Rise in food prices or a year of bad harvest left the country poorer. 
? 1848, France 
? Widespread food shortages and widespread unemployment experienced in 
Paris. 
? Barricades were made and Louis Philippe was forced to flee. 
? National Assembly proclaimed a Republic. 
? Suffrage to all males above 21 was granted. 
? The right to work was guaranteed. 
? National workshops for providing employment were set up. 
? 1845, Silesia 
? Weavers revolted against contractors for the drastic reduction in their 
payments. 
? This revolution received scorns and threats alternately and resulted in the 
death of eleven weavers. 
? 1848: The Revolution of the Liberals 
? A revolution led by the educated middle classes. 
? Germany, 1848  
? Large number of political associations whose members were professionals, 
businessmen and prosperous artisans decided to vote for an all-German 
National Assembly in Frankfurt. 
? 18
th
 May 1848: 831 elected representatives marched to take their places in 
the Frankfurt Parliament. 
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