The rise of nationalism in Europe, part 4 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : The rise of nationalism in Europe, part 4 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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TOPIC-4

Visualising the Nation : Nationalism 

and Imperialism

Quick Review


Visualising the Nation :

Nation was personified in the female form by the artists of the 19th century. 

● Female allegories such as that of liberty, justice and republic were invented. 

● In Germany, Germania became the allegory of the nation. 

● In France, the idea of a people’s nation was the christened Marianne. She was characterized by the ideas of liberty and republic.

● These symbols were usually popular images from everyday life that uneducated masses could easily identify with. 

● During revolutions, artists represented a nation as a person. This personification gave life to an abstract concept like nation.

● The way of expressing an abstract idea like freedom or liberty through a symbol that may be person or thing is known as Allegory. An allegory has a literal and a symbolic meaning. In the nineteenth century, French artists used the female allegory to represent France. She was Christened Marianne. She symbolises reason, liberty and the ideals of the republic.

● Marianne’s fasces or a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle was used to symbolise strength in unity. 

● The red Phrygian cap signified freedom of a slave. It was also known as the liberty cap. French people wore these caps a few days before the storming of the Bastille.


Nationalism and Imperialism :

Through the 18th and the mid 19th century, Europe was marked by a lot of chaos and turmoil. After 1871, there was a significant change in the concept of nationalism in Europe.

Nationalist groups in Europe had become increasingly incompatible with each other and were constantly in conflict. The major European powers, namely Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungary began taking advantage of nationalism in Europe, to materialise their aims for imperialism.

● The European powers sighted the much-disturbed Balkan region to fulfil their imperialist goals. The Balkan region consisted of the following countries of our times - Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.

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