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Objective(A)

How to carry out the reactions of an acid (HCl) with (i) litmus solution (blue and red), (ii) zinc metal (iii) solid sodium carbonate.

The Theory

Some examples of acids and bases from our daily life:

The sour and bitter tastes we find in food are due to the presence of acids and bases. Some naturally occurring acids are: vinegar (acetic acid), citric acid (present in orange and lemon) and tartaric acid (present in tamarind). Our stomach also produces hydrochloric acid which helps in the digestion of food. Some commonly used bases are baking soda and tooth paste. Tooth paste is a basic substance used for cleaning the teeth and it neutralizes the excess of acids present in the mouth and prevents tooth decay.

 What are different concepts about acids and bases? 

  • According to Arrhenius concept of acid and bases,an acid is a substance which furnishes H+ ions, when dissolved in water. For example,  Class 10 Notes | EduRev    
  • HCl is an acid and turns blue litmus to red.
  • HCl reacts with zinc metal to form zinc chloride and hydrogen.         
  • HCl reacts with sodium hydroxide, which is a strong alkali, to form sodium chloride.
     Class 10 Notes | EduRev
  •  HCl reacts with sodium carbonate to give rise to CO2. 

Objective(B)

 To carry out the reactions of a base (NaOH) with (i) litmus solution (blue and red), (ii) zinc metal (iii) solid sodium carbonate.

The Theory

 What are bases?

  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong alkali. Its pH is much higher than 7. So, it turns red litmus to blue.
  • NaOH reacts with zinc to form sodium zincate and hydrogen.
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  • Phenolphthalein is an indicator. In alkaline solution it gives pink colour, whereas it becomes colourless in acidic medium. So, NaOH gives pink colour with phenolphthalein. 

The strength of an acid depends on its ability to donate a proton and the strength of a base depends on its ability to donate a hydroxide ion. A strong acid dissociates completely in an aqueous solution by losing protons, while a weak acid does not dissociate completely. Also a strong base ionizes completely in an aqueous solution, but a weak base does not ionize completely in the same.

The hydrogen ion concentration is measured using a scale called pH scale. It was introduced by Sorensen in 1909. 

Do you know who Sorensen was?

Soren Peder Lauritz Sorensen was a Danish chemist, famous for the introduction of the concept of pH, a scale for measuring acidity and basicity.   While working at the Carlsberg Laboratory, he studied the effect of ion concentration on proteins, and understood the concentration of hydrogen ions was particularly important. To express the hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration in a solution he devised a logarithmic scale known as pH scale.

Define pH:

pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base ten) of hydrogen ion concentration in moles/ litre.
 Class 10 Notes | EduRev
We can measure the pH value from 0 to 14 on a pH scale. The pH value for an acidic solution is always less than 7 and the pH for a basic solution is always greater than 7. The pH of a neutral solution is 7. The higher the concentration of H+ ions, the lower is the pH value. The increase of pH from 7 to 14 indicates the increase in the concentration of OH - ions. The pH scale is shown below.            
 Class 10 Notes | EduRevThe acidic and basic nature of various substances can be studied using different acid-base indicators.

Acidic and basic substances can be identified by noting the change in the colour of the indicator in the acidic and basic medium. Some commonly used acid-base indicators are given below.

Indicator

Acidic medium

Basic medium

Methyl orange

Orange-red

Yellow

Phenolphthalein

Colourless

Pink

Methyl red

Red

Yellow

Phenol red

Yellow

Red

 Action of Litmus solution in an acid and a base:

  • The Litmus solution is another indicator used to identify the acidic and basic nature of a substance. It is a solution of different dyes extracted from lichen plants.
  • Acids have the property to change the colour of blue litmus to red.  Bases change the colour of red litmus to blue.                                                                                         

 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Learning Outcomes

  1. Students understand  terms like acids & bases based on the given chemical reactions.
  2. Students acquire skills to classify the given compounds as acids and bases using the following materials.
    • Litmus solution
    • Zinc metal
    • Solid sodium carbonate.
  3. Based on acquired skills the student will be able to analyze the given samples & classify them as acids or bases in the future.
  4. Students obtain the skill to safely handle the acids and bases in the lab.
  5. Students acquire a general understanding of the common requirements to perform this experiment & how to arrange it in the lab.

Materials Required:

 Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Procedure:

 To perform in real lab:

 Action of litmus solution with acid and base.

Experiment

Observation

Inference

Take a little amount of blue and red litmus solutions separately in two test tubes. Add few drops of HCl to each test tube using a dropper.

Blue litmus turns red.

HCl is an acid having pH value below 7.

Take a little amount of blue and red litmus solutions separately in two test tubes. Add few drops of NaOH to each test tube using a dropper.

Red litmus turns blue.

NaOH is an alkali having pH value more than 7.

 
The evolution of hydrogen gas can be seen by conducting the following experiments.

Experiment

Observation

Inference

Take some pieces of zinc metal in a boiling tube. Add few drops of HCl into the boiling tube using a dropper. Then place a dropper with a fine jet on the mouth of the tube. Heat the boiling tube. Bring a burning matchstick near the mouth of the fine jet.

A gas is evolved. It extinguishes the burning matchstick and burns itself with mild explosion and produces a popping sound.

The gas evolved is hydrogen which burns with mild explosion.

Take some pieces of zinc metal in a boiling tube. Add few drops of NaOH into the boiling tube using a dropper. Then place a dropper with a fine jet on the mouth of the tube. Heat the boiling tube. Bring a burning matchstick near the mouth of the fine jet.

A gas is evolved. It extinguishes the burning matchstick and burns itself with mild explosion and produces a popping sound.

The gas evolved is hydrogen which burns with mild explosion.


Action of HCl on solid sodium carbonate

Experiment

Observation

Inference

Take a small quantity of solid sodium carbonate in a flask. Then add distilled water into it. Cork the flask with a double bore cork and insert a thistle funnel into the flask. Then place a beaker containing lime water near the flask. Then insert one end of the delivery tube into the flask and the other end into the beaker. Now add HCl into the flask through the thistle funnel and observe the change in colour of the lime water.

A gas is evolved which turns lime water turns milky.

The gas produced is carbon dioxide due to the action of HCl on Na2CO3, which turns lime water milky.


Action of NaOH on solid sodium carbonate

Experiment

Observation

Inference

Take a small quantity of solid sodium carbonate in a test tube and add a little of NaOH solution into it. Then shake the test tube well. Then add few drops of phenolphthalein into the test tube.

The solution in the test tube turns pink.

Both NaOH and Na2CO3are alkali so they do not react but form alkaline solution. Phenolphthalein gives pink colour in an alkaline medium.


Simulator Procedure:

You can select the sample using ‘Select the sample’ drop down list.
You can select the reactant by clicking on the corresponding icon.


Litmus solution (For Acid and Base)

  • Drag the dropper towards the beaker and dip it in the sample to suck the sample solution.
  • Drag the dropper containing sample towards the test tube containing red litmus solution to pour the sample.
  • Again drag the dropper towards the beaker and dip it in the sample to suck the sample solution.
  • Drag the dropper containing sample towards the test tube containing blue litmus solution to pour  the sample.
  • You can see the colour change of the litmus solution due to the addition of different sample.
  • You can verify your result and can see the inference by clicking on the correct icon given under ‘Result’.
  • Click on the 'Reset' button to restart the test.

Zinc metal (For Acid and Base)

  • To pour the sample into the test tube containing zinc metal, drag the beaker towards the test tube.
  • To close the test tube, drag the single bored cork (in which a fine jet tube is inserted through the hole) towards the test tube.
  • Click on the knob of the burner to turn it on.
  • You can see that gas bubbles are evolved from the test tube.
  • Now, drag the burning match stick over the fine jet tube.
  • The flame dips out with a mild explosion.
  • You can verify your result and can see the inference by clicking on the correct icon given under  ‘Result’.
  • Click on the 'Reset' button to restart the test.

Solid Na2CO3 (For Acid)

  • To pour sample into the flask containing  mixture of solid sodium carbonate and distilled water, drag the beaker towards the thistle funnel.
  • You can see that gas bubbles are evolved from the flask and that turns lime water milky.
  • You can verify your result and can see the inference by clicking on the correct icon given under ‘Result’.
  • Click on the 'Reset' button to restart the test.

Solid Na2CO3 (For Base)

  • To pour sample into solid sodium carbonate, drag the beaker towards the test tube.
  • To pour phenolphthalein into the mixture of solid sodium carbonate and the sample, drag the beaker towards the test tube.
  • You can verify your result and can see the inference by clicking on the correct icon in the ‘Result’ part.
  • Click on the ‘Reset’ button to redo the experiment.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Precautions:

  1. Take small quantities of zinc, HCl and NaOH for their reaction, otherwise large amount of hydrogen produced may cause explosion.
  2. To hydrogen burning take a fine jet.
  3. Add HCl to Na2CO3, only when apparatus is made carefully airtight.
  4. NaOH and HCl are injurious, handle these chemicals carefully.

So, try out all and observe the changes………………

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