Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 10

Class 10 : Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Science Class 10.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10

Our Objective
To observe the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions:

  • ZnSO4 (aq)
  • FeSO4 (aq)
  • CuSO4 (aq)
  • Al2(SO4)3 (aq)

Arrange Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above results.

The Theory
Metals are elements and are good conductors of heat and electricity. Most metals are electropositive in nature and the metal atoms lose electrons in chemical reactions to form cations. The more reactive a metal, the greater tendency it has to form a positive ion in a chemical reaction.

For example:

Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

How are metals arranged in a periodic table?
Metals occupy the bulk of the periodic table. The alkali metals are a series of chemical elements in the periodic table. Alkali metals comprise group 1 in the periodic table along with hydrogen. Alkali metals are lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs) and francium (Fr). The group 2 elements in the periodic table are called alkaline earth metals. Alkaline earth metals are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg) calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Group1 and group 2 elements are together called s-block elements. Elements of group 3 to 12 are transition elements.These are also metallic in nature and are called transition metals. They are also called d-block elements. Non-metallic elements occupy the right side of the periodic table. A diagonal line from boron to polonium separates metals from non-metals.

Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Now, let’s explore the properties of metals…

Physical properties of metals:

  • Good conductors of heat and electricity: In metals, the positive ions are surrounded by a sea of electrons and these are responsible for their conductivity.
  • High melting point and boiling point.
  • They are malleable and ductile, so they can be bent and stretched without breaking.
  • In most metals, the atoms are highly close packed, so they have high density.
  • They have a shiny appearance.
  • Metals exist in solid state at room temperature except for mercury, which is in a liquid state at room temperature.

Chemical properties of metals:

  • A more reactive metal readily reacts with other elements. The most reactive metals will react even water, while the least reactive metals will not react even with acid.

Example: If we put a small piece of sodium metal in water, sodium  reacts exothermically with water producing hydrogen and metal hydroxide.

Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Metals react with oxygen in the air to form oxides.

Examples:
Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

  • Some metals react with acid and replace hydrogen from the acid.
     Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev
  • Single displacement reactions:

A single displacement reaction is an important type of chemical reaction. It is also called substitution reaction. In these reactions, a free element displaces another element from its compound, producing a new compound. The reaction is usually written as:
Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Single displacement reactions are all oxidation-reduction reactions. For example,
Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Definition of Displacement reaction: The chemical reaction by which one element takes the position or place of another element in a compound.

Displacement reactions are very common in metals. They can be used to find out the relative reactivities of metals. In a displacement reaction, a more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal from its salt solution. The reaction is often known as metal displacement reaction. 

Some of the commonly used metals have been arranged in the decreasing order of reactivity. This is known as the reactivity series or activity series. The activity series of metals is an important concept in chemistry. The activity series of metals is an important tool for predicting the products of displacement reactions and the reactivity of metals in other reactions. Potassium is the most reactive metal,  while platinum is the least reactive.

Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The higher the metal in the series, the more reactive it is and the more vigorously it reacts with water, oxygen and acid.  A metal in the activity series can displace any metal below it in the series from its compound. The elements potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium are very reactive and they react with cold water to produce hydroxides and hydrogen gas. The elements magnesium, aluminium and iron are also considered as active metals and they react with steam to produce oxides and hydrogen gas. The metals above hydrogen are more reactive than hydrogen. These metals can displace hydrogen from acids or water and liberate hydrogen gas. The metals copper, silver gold and platinum are less reactive than hydrogen and they do not replace hydrogen from water or acid. 

Examples for metal-displacement reactions:

  • Zinc can displace copper from copper sulphate solution and iron from ferrous sulphate solution. So zinc is more reactive than iron and copper.
    Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev
  • If a piece of zinc metal is added to aluminium sulphate solution, no reaction takes place. So aluminium is more reactive than zinc.
  • If small pieces of copper are added into solutions of zinc sulphate, aluminium sulphate and ferrous sulphate, no reactions take place. So, copper is less reactive than zinc, aluminium and iron.
  • Aluminium can displace Zn from zinc sulphate solution, Cu from copper sulphate solution and Fe from ferrous sulphate solution.
    Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

    

  • Iron displaces Cu from copper sulphate solution, but it does not displace Al and Zn from their salt solutions.Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Not only metals but also non-metals can take part in displacement reactions.

For example, chlorine gas displaces bromine from potassium bromide solution. The solution of potassium bromide acquires a yellowish and orange color of the liberated bromine gas. 

Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Learning Outcomes

  1. Students  understand the terms like metals, metal displacement reaction, reactivity series, etc.
  2. Students acquire skills to perform & visualize the reactions of Al, Zn, Fe and Cu with the following salt solutions
    • Aluminium sulphate
    • Zinc sulphate
    • Ferrous sulphate
    • Copper sulphate
  3. Students can analyze the meaning of reactivity series of metals based on the inferences from the experiment.
  4. Students acquire skills to perform an experiment to determine the reactivity of metals in salt solutions.

Materials required:

Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Procedure:

  • Select four 100ml beakers and label them as zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, aluminium sulphate and ferrous sulphate.
  • Add 20ml of 1M solution of ZnSO4, CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3 and FeSO4 in the labeled beaker respectively.
  • Take a strip of cleaned zinc metal and cut it into small pieces of suitable size.
  • Add two pieces into each beaker containing CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3 and FeSO4.
  • Keep the beakers undisturbed for about 1 hour.
  • After about an hour, note the change in colour of solutions, appearance of metal surface or any other change.
  • Repeat the similar procedure by adding-
  • Copper strips to ZnSO4, Al2(SO4)3 and FeSO4 solutions.
  • Aluminium strips to ZnSO4, CuSO4, and FeSO4 solutions.
  • Iron strips to ZnSO4, CuSOand Al2(SO4)3 solutions.

 Simulator Procedure (as performed through the Online Labs)

  • Select the metal from the ‘Select the metal’ drop down list.
  • For the solution in beaker A, select it from the ‘Beaker A’ drop down list.
  • For the solution in beaker B, select it from the ‘Beaker B’ drop down list.
  • For the solution in beaker C, select it from the ‘Beaker C’ drop down list.
  • To add metal pieces into the beaker A, drag the forceps over the beaker.
  • You can click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To add metal pieces into the beaker B, drag the forceps over the beaker.
  • You can click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To add metal pieces into the beaker C, drag the forceps over the beaker.
  • You can click on the inference icon to see the inference.
  • To verify your findings;
    • Select the metal having the highest reactivity from the ‘Most reactive metal’ drop down list and verify the result.
    • Select the metal having the lowest reactivity from ‘Least reactive metal’ drop down list and verify the result.
    • Select the increasing order of reactivity of the metals from ‘Increasing order of reactivity’ drop down list and verify the result.
  • Click on the ‘Reset’ button to redo the experiment.

Note: Click on the ‘HELP’ button to see the instructions.

Observations:


Metal
Salt solution in which added
Colour change of solution
Appearance of metal surface
Inference
Zinc
CuSO4
Blue color of CuSO4disappears and red-brown copper particles settle down at the bottom of the beaker.
Changes
Zn can displace Cu from CuSO4 solution.
Zn + CuSO4 ---> ZnSO4 + Cu
 
Al2(SO4)3
Solution remains colorless.
No change
Zn cannot displace Al from Al2(SO4)3solution.
 
FeSO4
Green colour of ferrous sulphate disappears. Iron metal is settling down at the bottom of the beaker.
Changes
Zn can displace Fe from FeSO4 solution.
Zn + FeSO4 ---> ZnSO4 + Fe
Copper
ZnSO4
Solution remains colorless.
No change
Cu cannot displace Zn from ZnSO4 solution.
 
Al2(SO4)3
Solution remains colorless.
No change
Cu cannot displace Al from Al2(SO4)3 solution.
 
FeSO4
Solution remains colorless.
No change
Cu cannot displace Fe from FeSO4  solution.
Aluminium
ZnSO4
Solution remains colorless. Zinc metal is settling down at the bottom of the beaker.
Changes
Al can displace Zn from ZnSO4 solution.
2Al + 3ZnSO4  ---> 3Zn + Al2(SO4)3
 
CuSO4
Blue colour of CuSO4disappears. The   brown colored copper particles settle down at the bottom of the beaker.
Changes
Al can displace Cu from CuSO4 solution.
2Al + 3CuSO4 ---> 3Cu + Al2(SO4)3
 
FeSO4
Green colour of FeSO4disappears. Iron   metal is settling down at the bottom of the beaker.
Changes
Al can displace Fe from FeSO4 solution.
2Al + 3FeSO4---> 3Fe + Al2(SO4)3

 

Iron
ZnSO4
Solution remains colorless.
No change
Fe cannot displace Zn from ZnSO4  solution
 
CuSO4
Blue colour of CuSO4changes to light green colored FeSO4. Copper metal is formed in the beaker.
Changes
Fe can displace Cu from CuSO4 solution.
Fe+ CuSO4  ---->    Cu +  FeSO4
 
Al2(SO4)3
Solution remains colorless.
No change
Fe cannot displace Al from Al2(SO4)3 solution.


Conclusions:

  • Aluminium is able to displace Zn, Cu and Fe from their salt solutions.
  • Zinc is able to displace Cu and Fe from their salt solutions.
  • Fe is able to displace Cu from its salt solution.
  • Cu cannot displace Zn, Al or Fe from their salt solutions.
  • Thus, aluminium is a more reactive metal. The reactivity of given metals in decreasing order is as given below:

 Theory & Procedure, Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Precautions:

  • Do not touch any chemical.
  • Label the beakers properly and put them in sequences. It is better to label the beakers both with the chemical names and also by chemical symbols.
  • Till the reaction goes on, keep the beakers at a safe place. Cover them so that insects or dust may not pollute the solutions.
  • It is very important that the apparatus you use must be very clean and dry.
  •  Always clean the metallic strips before use with a sand paper. Use the same strips of metals of same size, weight and number.
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

ppt

,

Theory & Procedure

,

Summary

,

Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Relative Reactivity of Metals Using Salt Solutions Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Semester Notes

,

pdf

,

Theory & Procedure

,

Viva Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

MCQs

,

Theory & Procedure

,

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

Sample Paper

,

Important questions

,

practice quizzes

,

past year papers

,

mock tests for examination

,

study material

,

video lectures

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Objective type Questions

,

Free

;