Page 1 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 Module 4: Time Response of discrete time systems Lecture Note 1 1 Time Response of discrete time systems Absolute stability is a basic requirement of all control systems. Apart from that, good relative stability and steady state accuracy are also required in any control system, whether continuous time or discrete time. Transient response corresponds to the system closed loop poles and steady state response corresponds to the excitation poles or poles of the input function. 1.1 Transient response speci?cations Inmanypracticalcontrolsystems, thedesiredperformancecharacteristicsarespeci?edinterms of time domain quantities. Unit step input is most commonly used in analysis of a system since it is easy to generate and represent a su?ciently drastic change thus providing useful informa tion on both transient and steady state responses. The transient response of a system depends on the initial conditions. It is a common prac tice to consider the system initially at rest. Consider the digital control system shown in Figure1. r(t) e(t) T T + Plant Hold Digital Controller c(t) c(kT)  Figure 1: Block Diagram of a closed loop digital system Similar to the continuous time case, transient response of a digital control system can also be characterized by the following. 1. Rise time (t r ): Time required for the unit step response to rise from 0% to 100% of its ?nal value in case of underdamped system or 10% to 90% of its ?nal value in case of overdamped system. 2. Delay time (t d ): Time required for the the unit step response to reach 50% of its ?nal value. I. Kar 1 Page 2 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 Module 4: Time Response of discrete time systems Lecture Note 1 1 Time Response of discrete time systems Absolute stability is a basic requirement of all control systems. Apart from that, good relative stability and steady state accuracy are also required in any control system, whether continuous time or discrete time. Transient response corresponds to the system closed loop poles and steady state response corresponds to the excitation poles or poles of the input function. 1.1 Transient response speci?cations Inmanypracticalcontrolsystems, thedesiredperformancecharacteristicsarespeci?edinterms of time domain quantities. Unit step input is most commonly used in analysis of a system since it is easy to generate and represent a su?ciently drastic change thus providing useful informa tion on both transient and steady state responses. The transient response of a system depends on the initial conditions. It is a common prac tice to consider the system initially at rest. Consider the digital control system shown in Figure1. r(t) e(t) T T + Plant Hold Digital Controller c(t) c(kT)  Figure 1: Block Diagram of a closed loop digital system Similar to the continuous time case, transient response of a digital control system can also be characterized by the following. 1. Rise time (t r ): Time required for the unit step response to rise from 0% to 100% of its ?nal value in case of underdamped system or 10% to 90% of its ?nal value in case of overdamped system. 2. Delay time (t d ): Time required for the the unit step response to reach 50% of its ?nal value. I. Kar 1 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 3. Peak time (t p ): Time at which maximum peak occurs. 4. Peak overshoot (M p ): The di?erence between the maximum peak and the steady state value of the unit step response. 5. Settling time (t s ): Time required for the unit step response to reach and stay within 2% or 5% of its steady state value. However since the output response is discrete the calculated performance measures may be slightly di?erent from the actual values. Figure 2 illustrates this. The output has a maximum value c max whereas the maximum value of the discrete output is c * max which is always less than or equal to c max . If the sampling period is small enough compared to the oscillations of the response then this di?erence will be small otherwise c * max may be completely erroneous. t 1.0 cmax c * max c(t) Figure 2: Unit step response of a discrete time system 1.2 Steady state error The steady state performance of a stable control system is measured by the steady error due to step, ramp or parabolic inputs depending on the system type. Consider the discrete time system as shown in Figure 3. T + _ c(t) r(t) e(t) e * (t) Gp(s) 1e Ts s H(s) Figure 3: Block Diagram 2 From Figure 2, we can write E(s) =R(s)H(s)C(s) I. Kar 2 Page 3 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 Module 4: Time Response of discrete time systems Lecture Note 1 1 Time Response of discrete time systems Absolute stability is a basic requirement of all control systems. Apart from that, good relative stability and steady state accuracy are also required in any control system, whether continuous time or discrete time. Transient response corresponds to the system closed loop poles and steady state response corresponds to the excitation poles or poles of the input function. 1.1 Transient response speci?cations Inmanypracticalcontrolsystems, thedesiredperformancecharacteristicsarespeci?edinterms of time domain quantities. Unit step input is most commonly used in analysis of a system since it is easy to generate and represent a su?ciently drastic change thus providing useful informa tion on both transient and steady state responses. The transient response of a system depends on the initial conditions. It is a common prac tice to consider the system initially at rest. Consider the digital control system shown in Figure1. r(t) e(t) T T + Plant Hold Digital Controller c(t) c(kT)  Figure 1: Block Diagram of a closed loop digital system Similar to the continuous time case, transient response of a digital control system can also be characterized by the following. 1. Rise time (t r ): Time required for the unit step response to rise from 0% to 100% of its ?nal value in case of underdamped system or 10% to 90% of its ?nal value in case of overdamped system. 2. Delay time (t d ): Time required for the the unit step response to reach 50% of its ?nal value. I. Kar 1 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 3. Peak time (t p ): Time at which maximum peak occurs. 4. Peak overshoot (M p ): The di?erence between the maximum peak and the steady state value of the unit step response. 5. Settling time (t s ): Time required for the unit step response to reach and stay within 2% or 5% of its steady state value. However since the output response is discrete the calculated performance measures may be slightly di?erent from the actual values. Figure 2 illustrates this. The output has a maximum value c max whereas the maximum value of the discrete output is c * max which is always less than or equal to c max . If the sampling period is small enough compared to the oscillations of the response then this di?erence will be small otherwise c * max may be completely erroneous. t 1.0 cmax c * max c(t) Figure 2: Unit step response of a discrete time system 1.2 Steady state error The steady state performance of a stable control system is measured by the steady error due to step, ramp or parabolic inputs depending on the system type. Consider the discrete time system as shown in Figure 3. T + _ c(t) r(t) e(t) e * (t) Gp(s) 1e Ts s H(s) Figure 3: Block Diagram 2 From Figure 2, we can write E(s) =R(s)H(s)C(s) I. Kar 2 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 We will consider the steady state error at the sampling instants. From ?nal value theorem lim k?8 e(kT) = lim z?1 (1z 1 )E(z) G(z) = (1z 1 )Z G p (s) s GH(z) = (1z 1 )Z G p (s)H(s) s C(z) R(z) = G(z) 1+GH(z) Again,E(z) = R(z)GH(z)E(z) or,E(z) = 1 1+GH(z) R(z) ?e ss = lim z?1 (1z 1 ) 1 1+GH(z) R(z) The steady state error of a system with feedback thus depends on the input signal R(z) and the loop transfer function GH(z). 1.2.1 Type0 system and position error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a zero order polynomial input (step input) are called Type0 systems. The position error constant for a system is de?ned for a step input. r(t) = u s (t) unit step input R(z) = 1 1z 1 e ss = lim z?1 1 1+GH(z) = 1 1+K p where K p = lim z?1 GH(z) is known as the position error constant. 1.2.2 Type1 system and velocity error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a ?rst order polynomial input (ramp input) are called Type1 systems. The velocity error constant for a system is de?ned for a ramp input. r(t) = u r (t) unit ramp R(z) = Tz (z1) 2 = TZ 1 (1Z 1 ) 2 e ss = lim z?1 T (z1)GH(z) = 1 K v where K v = 1 T lim z?1 [(z1)GH(z)] is known as the velocity error constant. I. Kar 3 Page 4 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 Module 4: Time Response of discrete time systems Lecture Note 1 1 Time Response of discrete time systems Absolute stability is a basic requirement of all control systems. Apart from that, good relative stability and steady state accuracy are also required in any control system, whether continuous time or discrete time. Transient response corresponds to the system closed loop poles and steady state response corresponds to the excitation poles or poles of the input function. 1.1 Transient response speci?cations Inmanypracticalcontrolsystems, thedesiredperformancecharacteristicsarespeci?edinterms of time domain quantities. Unit step input is most commonly used in analysis of a system since it is easy to generate and represent a su?ciently drastic change thus providing useful informa tion on both transient and steady state responses. The transient response of a system depends on the initial conditions. It is a common prac tice to consider the system initially at rest. Consider the digital control system shown in Figure1. r(t) e(t) T T + Plant Hold Digital Controller c(t) c(kT)  Figure 1: Block Diagram of a closed loop digital system Similar to the continuous time case, transient response of a digital control system can also be characterized by the following. 1. Rise time (t r ): Time required for the unit step response to rise from 0% to 100% of its ?nal value in case of underdamped system or 10% to 90% of its ?nal value in case of overdamped system. 2. Delay time (t d ): Time required for the the unit step response to reach 50% of its ?nal value. I. Kar 1 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 3. Peak time (t p ): Time at which maximum peak occurs. 4. Peak overshoot (M p ): The di?erence between the maximum peak and the steady state value of the unit step response. 5. Settling time (t s ): Time required for the unit step response to reach and stay within 2% or 5% of its steady state value. However since the output response is discrete the calculated performance measures may be slightly di?erent from the actual values. Figure 2 illustrates this. The output has a maximum value c max whereas the maximum value of the discrete output is c * max which is always less than or equal to c max . If the sampling period is small enough compared to the oscillations of the response then this di?erence will be small otherwise c * max may be completely erroneous. t 1.0 cmax c * max c(t) Figure 2: Unit step response of a discrete time system 1.2 Steady state error The steady state performance of a stable control system is measured by the steady error due to step, ramp or parabolic inputs depending on the system type. Consider the discrete time system as shown in Figure 3. T + _ c(t) r(t) e(t) e * (t) Gp(s) 1e Ts s H(s) Figure 3: Block Diagram 2 From Figure 2, we can write E(s) =R(s)H(s)C(s) I. Kar 2 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 We will consider the steady state error at the sampling instants. From ?nal value theorem lim k?8 e(kT) = lim z?1 (1z 1 )E(z) G(z) = (1z 1 )Z G p (s) s GH(z) = (1z 1 )Z G p (s)H(s) s C(z) R(z) = G(z) 1+GH(z) Again,E(z) = R(z)GH(z)E(z) or,E(z) = 1 1+GH(z) R(z) ?e ss = lim z?1 (1z 1 ) 1 1+GH(z) R(z) The steady state error of a system with feedback thus depends on the input signal R(z) and the loop transfer function GH(z). 1.2.1 Type0 system and position error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a zero order polynomial input (step input) are called Type0 systems. The position error constant for a system is de?ned for a step input. r(t) = u s (t) unit step input R(z) = 1 1z 1 e ss = lim z?1 1 1+GH(z) = 1 1+K p where K p = lim z?1 GH(z) is known as the position error constant. 1.2.2 Type1 system and velocity error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a ?rst order polynomial input (ramp input) are called Type1 systems. The velocity error constant for a system is de?ned for a ramp input. r(t) = u r (t) unit ramp R(z) = Tz (z1) 2 = TZ 1 (1Z 1 ) 2 e ss = lim z?1 T (z1)GH(z) = 1 K v where K v = 1 T lim z?1 [(z1)GH(z)] is known as the velocity error constant. I. Kar 3 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 1.2.3 Type2 system and acceleration error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a second order polynomial input (parabolic input) are called Type2 systems. The acceleration error constant for a system is de?ned for a parabolic input. R(z) = T 2 z(z+1) 2(z1) 3 = T 2 (1+z 1 )z 1 2(1z 1 ) 3 e ss = T 2 2 lim z?1 (z+1) (z1) 2 [1+GH(z)] = 1 lim z?1 (z1) 2 T 2 GH(z) = 1 K a where K a = lim z?1 (z1) 2 T 2 GH(z) is known as the acceleration error constant. Table 1 shows the steady state errors for di?erent types of systems for di?erent inputs. Table 1: Steady state errors System Step input Ramp input Parabolic input Type0 1 1+K p 8 8 Type1 0 1 K v 8 Type2 0 0 1 K a Example 1: Calculatethesteadystateerrorsforunitstep,unitrampandunitparabolicinputs for the system shown in Figure 4. +  C(s) +  ZOH E(s) R(s) E * (s) 1 10s 1 s 1000 500 Figure 4: Block Diagram for Example 1 Solution: The open loop transfer function is: G(s) = C(s) E * (s) =G ho (s)G p (s) = 1e Ts s 1000/10 s(s+500/10) I. Kar 4 Page 5 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 Module 4: Time Response of discrete time systems Lecture Note 1 1 Time Response of discrete time systems Absolute stability is a basic requirement of all control systems. Apart from that, good relative stability and steady state accuracy are also required in any control system, whether continuous time or discrete time. Transient response corresponds to the system closed loop poles and steady state response corresponds to the excitation poles or poles of the input function. 1.1 Transient response speci?cations Inmanypracticalcontrolsystems, thedesiredperformancecharacteristicsarespeci?edinterms of time domain quantities. Unit step input is most commonly used in analysis of a system since it is easy to generate and represent a su?ciently drastic change thus providing useful informa tion on both transient and steady state responses. The transient response of a system depends on the initial conditions. It is a common prac tice to consider the system initially at rest. Consider the digital control system shown in Figure1. r(t) e(t) T T + Plant Hold Digital Controller c(t) c(kT)  Figure 1: Block Diagram of a closed loop digital system Similar to the continuous time case, transient response of a digital control system can also be characterized by the following. 1. Rise time (t r ): Time required for the unit step response to rise from 0% to 100% of its ?nal value in case of underdamped system or 10% to 90% of its ?nal value in case of overdamped system. 2. Delay time (t d ): Time required for the the unit step response to reach 50% of its ?nal value. I. Kar 1 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 3. Peak time (t p ): Time at which maximum peak occurs. 4. Peak overshoot (M p ): The di?erence between the maximum peak and the steady state value of the unit step response. 5. Settling time (t s ): Time required for the unit step response to reach and stay within 2% or 5% of its steady state value. However since the output response is discrete the calculated performance measures may be slightly di?erent from the actual values. Figure 2 illustrates this. The output has a maximum value c max whereas the maximum value of the discrete output is c * max which is always less than or equal to c max . If the sampling period is small enough compared to the oscillations of the response then this di?erence will be small otherwise c * max may be completely erroneous. t 1.0 cmax c * max c(t) Figure 2: Unit step response of a discrete time system 1.2 Steady state error The steady state performance of a stable control system is measured by the steady error due to step, ramp or parabolic inputs depending on the system type. Consider the discrete time system as shown in Figure 3. T + _ c(t) r(t) e(t) e * (t) Gp(s) 1e Ts s H(s) Figure 3: Block Diagram 2 From Figure 2, we can write E(s) =R(s)H(s)C(s) I. Kar 2 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 We will consider the steady state error at the sampling instants. From ?nal value theorem lim k?8 e(kT) = lim z?1 (1z 1 )E(z) G(z) = (1z 1 )Z G p (s) s GH(z) = (1z 1 )Z G p (s)H(s) s C(z) R(z) = G(z) 1+GH(z) Again,E(z) = R(z)GH(z)E(z) or,E(z) = 1 1+GH(z) R(z) ?e ss = lim z?1 (1z 1 ) 1 1+GH(z) R(z) The steady state error of a system with feedback thus depends on the input signal R(z) and the loop transfer function GH(z). 1.2.1 Type0 system and position error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a zero order polynomial input (step input) are called Type0 systems. The position error constant for a system is de?ned for a step input. r(t) = u s (t) unit step input R(z) = 1 1z 1 e ss = lim z?1 1 1+GH(z) = 1 1+K p where K p = lim z?1 GH(z) is known as the position error constant. 1.2.2 Type1 system and velocity error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a ?rst order polynomial input (ramp input) are called Type1 systems. The velocity error constant for a system is de?ned for a ramp input. r(t) = u r (t) unit ramp R(z) = Tz (z1) 2 = TZ 1 (1Z 1 ) 2 e ss = lim z?1 T (z1)GH(z) = 1 K v where K v = 1 T lim z?1 [(z1)GH(z)] is known as the velocity error constant. I. Kar 3 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 1.2.3 Type2 system and acceleration error constant Systems having a ?nite nonzero steady state error with a second order polynomial input (parabolic input) are called Type2 systems. The acceleration error constant for a system is de?ned for a parabolic input. R(z) = T 2 z(z+1) 2(z1) 3 = T 2 (1+z 1 )z 1 2(1z 1 ) 3 e ss = T 2 2 lim z?1 (z+1) (z1) 2 [1+GH(z)] = 1 lim z?1 (z1) 2 T 2 GH(z) = 1 K a where K a = lim z?1 (z1) 2 T 2 GH(z) is known as the acceleration error constant. Table 1 shows the steady state errors for di?erent types of systems for di?erent inputs. Table 1: Steady state errors System Step input Ramp input Parabolic input Type0 1 1+K p 8 8 Type1 0 1 K v 8 Type2 0 0 1 K a Example 1: Calculatethesteadystateerrorsforunitstep,unitrampandunitparabolicinputs for the system shown in Figure 4. +  C(s) +  ZOH E(s) R(s) E * (s) 1 10s 1 s 1000 500 Figure 4: Block Diagram for Example 1 Solution: The open loop transfer function is: G(s) = C(s) E * (s) =G ho (s)G p (s) = 1e Ts s 1000/10 s(s+500/10) I. Kar 4 Digital Control Module 4 Lecture 1 Taking Ztransform G(z) = 2(1z 1 ) Z 1 s 2  10 500s + 10 500(s+5000) = 2(1z 1 ) Tz (z1) 2  10z 500(z1) + 10z 500(ze 50T ) = 1 250 (500T10+10e 50T )z(500T +10)e 50T +10 (z1)(ze 50T ) Steady state error for step input = 1 1+K p where K p = lim z?1 G(z) =8.?e step ss = 0. Steadystateerrorforrampinput= 1 K v whereK v = 1 T lim z?1 [(z1)G(z)] = 2.?e ramp ss = 0.5. Steady state error for parabolic input = 1 K a where K a = 1 T 2 lim z?1 [(z1) 2 G(z)] = 0. ? e para ss =8. I. Kar 5Read More
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