Transportation-Systems-Engineering-Advanced-ITS Notes | EduRev

: Transportation-Systems-Engineering-Advanced-ITS Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Chapter 50
Advanced ITS
50.1 Introduction
Some new features in the ITS sector are covered in this section. The ?rst basic concept in any
ITS implementation is SMART CAR.It is thecar with allmodernfeatures. The SMARTCAR
has to be complimented by a SMART ROAD. The developments in the ITS ?eld started with
the infrastructure to infrastructure communications. They formed the basis of further devel-
opment of ITS. Then the I2I communications were upgraded with the vehicle to infrastructure
communications. They are called V2I communications. The latest development is the vehicle
to vehicle communications, i.e. V2V communications.
50.2 Smart car
As mentioned earlier the car is equipped with all the new electronic gadgets. It helps the user
to use service e?ciently. Some of the features of SMART CAR are:
• GPS and on-board communications
• Anti-collision sensors
A smart car must be able to sense, analyze, predict and react to the road environment, which
is the key feature of smart cars. The car works with a central component that monitors
the roadway and the driver. It also evaluates of the potential safety bene?ts. It addresses
navigation, obstacle avoidance and platooning problems. The car aims at expanding the time
horizonforacquiringsafetyrelevantinformationandimprovingprecision,reliabilityandquality
of driving. There are some preventive safety technologies and in-vehicle systems, which sense
the potential danger. The Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle Interface (AIDE) project tries
to maximize the e?ciency and safety of advanced driver assistance systems, while minimizing
the workload and distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. Almost 95% of the
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.1 February 19, 2014
Page 2


Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Chapter 50
Advanced ITS
50.1 Introduction
Some new features in the ITS sector are covered in this section. The ?rst basic concept in any
ITS implementation is SMART CAR.It is thecar with allmodernfeatures. The SMARTCAR
has to be complimented by a SMART ROAD. The developments in the ITS ?eld started with
the infrastructure to infrastructure communications. They formed the basis of further devel-
opment of ITS. Then the I2I communications were upgraded with the vehicle to infrastructure
communications. They are called V2I communications. The latest development is the vehicle
to vehicle communications, i.e. V2V communications.
50.2 Smart car
As mentioned earlier the car is equipped with all the new electronic gadgets. It helps the user
to use service e?ciently. Some of the features of SMART CAR are:
• GPS and on-board communications
• Anti-collision sensors
A smart car must be able to sense, analyze, predict and react to the road environment, which
is the key feature of smart cars. The car works with a central component that monitors
the roadway and the driver. It also evaluates of the potential safety bene?ts. It addresses
navigation, obstacle avoidance and platooning problems. The car aims at expanding the time
horizonforacquiringsafetyrelevantinformationandimprovingprecision,reliabilityandquality
of driving. There are some preventive safety technologies and in-vehicle systems, which sense
the potential danger. The Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle Interface (AIDE) project tries
to maximize the e?ciency and safety of advanced driver assistance systems, while minimizing
the workload and distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. Almost 95% of the
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.1 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
accidents are due to human factors and in almost three-quarters of the cases human behaviour
is solely to blame. Smart cars present promising potentials to assist drivers in improving their
situational awareness and reducing errors. With cameras monitoring the driver’s gaze and
activity, smart cars attempt to keep the driver’s attention on the road ahead. Physiological
sensors can detect whether the driver is in good condition. The actuators will execute speci?ed
control on the car without the driver’s commands. The smart car will adopt active measures
such as stopping the car in case that the driver is unable to act properly, or applying passive
protection to reduce possible harm in abrupt accidents, for example, popping up airbags.
50.3 Smart road
As mentioned earlier SMART CAR alone cannot operate in a system. Thus along with the
SMART CAR, the infrastructure should also be improved. The infrastructure also should be
well prepared for taking care of smart car. The road equipment will communicate with the
vehicle and provide real time assistance to the user. Provision of Smart road along with Smart
car will complete the Smart features of any facility. It may be possible that the highway forms
a high density platoon of vehicles moving bumper to bumper and this platoon will move at
a speed of 70 kmph or so. That road will be equipped with some sensors may be along the
pavementsandthedecisionsarelefttothecentralunit. Theroaditselfwillshowsomemessages
which can be easily read.
50.4 Infrastructure to Infrastructure Communications
This type of communication is a initial stage in formation of present ITS system. Communica-
tion takes place between infrastructures. Evolution of I2I services led to more advanced vehicle
communications. They arethe easy means of communications. But handling them ona largeis
an area of concern. Fig. 50:1 and 50:2 show the I2I communications in case of ramp metering.
50.5 Vehicle to infrastructure communications
These involve advanced vehicle to infrastructure interface. The communication takes place
between a vehicular device and a infrastructure equipment. It is an improvement over I2I
services. Large communication is possible with this type of communication. Some examples of
V2I communication are:
• Blind merge warning
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.2 February 19, 2014
Page 3


Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Chapter 50
Advanced ITS
50.1 Introduction
Some new features in the ITS sector are covered in this section. The ?rst basic concept in any
ITS implementation is SMART CAR.It is thecar with allmodernfeatures. The SMARTCAR
has to be complimented by a SMART ROAD. The developments in the ITS ?eld started with
the infrastructure to infrastructure communications. They formed the basis of further devel-
opment of ITS. Then the I2I communications were upgraded with the vehicle to infrastructure
communications. They are called V2I communications. The latest development is the vehicle
to vehicle communications, i.e. V2V communications.
50.2 Smart car
As mentioned earlier the car is equipped with all the new electronic gadgets. It helps the user
to use service e?ciently. Some of the features of SMART CAR are:
• GPS and on-board communications
• Anti-collision sensors
A smart car must be able to sense, analyze, predict and react to the road environment, which
is the key feature of smart cars. The car works with a central component that monitors
the roadway and the driver. It also evaluates of the potential safety bene?ts. It addresses
navigation, obstacle avoidance and platooning problems. The car aims at expanding the time
horizonforacquiringsafetyrelevantinformationandimprovingprecision,reliabilityandquality
of driving. There are some preventive safety technologies and in-vehicle systems, which sense
the potential danger. The Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle Interface (AIDE) project tries
to maximize the e?ciency and safety of advanced driver assistance systems, while minimizing
the workload and distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. Almost 95% of the
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.1 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
accidents are due to human factors and in almost three-quarters of the cases human behaviour
is solely to blame. Smart cars present promising potentials to assist drivers in improving their
situational awareness and reducing errors. With cameras monitoring the driver’s gaze and
activity, smart cars attempt to keep the driver’s attention on the road ahead. Physiological
sensors can detect whether the driver is in good condition. The actuators will execute speci?ed
control on the car without the driver’s commands. The smart car will adopt active measures
such as stopping the car in case that the driver is unable to act properly, or applying passive
protection to reduce possible harm in abrupt accidents, for example, popping up airbags.
50.3 Smart road
As mentioned earlier SMART CAR alone cannot operate in a system. Thus along with the
SMART CAR, the infrastructure should also be improved. The infrastructure also should be
well prepared for taking care of smart car. The road equipment will communicate with the
vehicle and provide real time assistance to the user. Provision of Smart road along with Smart
car will complete the Smart features of any facility. It may be possible that the highway forms
a high density platoon of vehicles moving bumper to bumper and this platoon will move at
a speed of 70 kmph or so. That road will be equipped with some sensors may be along the
pavementsandthedecisionsarelefttothecentralunit. Theroaditselfwillshowsomemessages
which can be easily read.
50.4 Infrastructure to Infrastructure Communications
This type of communication is a initial stage in formation of present ITS system. Communica-
tion takes place between infrastructures. Evolution of I2I services led to more advanced vehicle
communications. They arethe easy means of communications. But handling them ona largeis
an area of concern. Fig. 50:1 and 50:2 show the I2I communications in case of ramp metering.
50.5 Vehicle to infrastructure communications
These involve advanced vehicle to infrastructure interface. The communication takes place
between a vehicular device and a infrastructure equipment. It is an improvement over I2I
services. Large communication is possible with this type of communication. Some examples of
V2I communication are:
• Blind merge warning
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.2 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Ramp signals Vehicles entering
the motorway
One vehicle per
lane per green
Vehicles on
the motorway
phase
Figure 50:1: On-ramp metering-1
ONE VEHICLE PER
EACH LANE
STOP
WERE ON
RED
Figure 50:2: On-ramp metering-1
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.3 February 19, 2014
Page 4


Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Chapter 50
Advanced ITS
50.1 Introduction
Some new features in the ITS sector are covered in this section. The ?rst basic concept in any
ITS implementation is SMART CAR.It is thecar with allmodernfeatures. The SMARTCAR
has to be complimented by a SMART ROAD. The developments in the ITS ?eld started with
the infrastructure to infrastructure communications. They formed the basis of further devel-
opment of ITS. Then the I2I communications were upgraded with the vehicle to infrastructure
communications. They are called V2I communications. The latest development is the vehicle
to vehicle communications, i.e. V2V communications.
50.2 Smart car
As mentioned earlier the car is equipped with all the new electronic gadgets. It helps the user
to use service e?ciently. Some of the features of SMART CAR are:
• GPS and on-board communications
• Anti-collision sensors
A smart car must be able to sense, analyze, predict and react to the road environment, which
is the key feature of smart cars. The car works with a central component that monitors
the roadway and the driver. It also evaluates of the potential safety bene?ts. It addresses
navigation, obstacle avoidance and platooning problems. The car aims at expanding the time
horizonforacquiringsafetyrelevantinformationandimprovingprecision,reliabilityandquality
of driving. There are some preventive safety technologies and in-vehicle systems, which sense
the potential danger. The Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle Interface (AIDE) project tries
to maximize the e?ciency and safety of advanced driver assistance systems, while minimizing
the workload and distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. Almost 95% of the
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.1 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
accidents are due to human factors and in almost three-quarters of the cases human behaviour
is solely to blame. Smart cars present promising potentials to assist drivers in improving their
situational awareness and reducing errors. With cameras monitoring the driver’s gaze and
activity, smart cars attempt to keep the driver’s attention on the road ahead. Physiological
sensors can detect whether the driver is in good condition. The actuators will execute speci?ed
control on the car without the driver’s commands. The smart car will adopt active measures
such as stopping the car in case that the driver is unable to act properly, or applying passive
protection to reduce possible harm in abrupt accidents, for example, popping up airbags.
50.3 Smart road
As mentioned earlier SMART CAR alone cannot operate in a system. Thus along with the
SMART CAR, the infrastructure should also be improved. The infrastructure also should be
well prepared for taking care of smart car. The road equipment will communicate with the
vehicle and provide real time assistance to the user. Provision of Smart road along with Smart
car will complete the Smart features of any facility. It may be possible that the highway forms
a high density platoon of vehicles moving bumper to bumper and this platoon will move at
a speed of 70 kmph or so. That road will be equipped with some sensors may be along the
pavementsandthedecisionsarelefttothecentralunit. Theroaditselfwillshowsomemessages
which can be easily read.
50.4 Infrastructure to Infrastructure Communications
This type of communication is a initial stage in formation of present ITS system. Communica-
tion takes place between infrastructures. Evolution of I2I services led to more advanced vehicle
communications. They arethe easy means of communications. But handling them ona largeis
an area of concern. Fig. 50:1 and 50:2 show the I2I communications in case of ramp metering.
50.5 Vehicle to infrastructure communications
These involve advanced vehicle to infrastructure interface. The communication takes place
between a vehicular device and a infrastructure equipment. It is an improvement over I2I
services. Large communication is possible with this type of communication. Some examples of
V2I communication are:
• Blind merge warning
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.2 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Ramp signals Vehicles entering
the motorway
One vehicle per
lane per green
Vehicles on
the motorway
phase
Figure 50:1: On-ramp metering-1
ONE VEHICLE PER
EACH LANE
STOP
WERE ON
RED
Figure 50:2: On-ramp metering-1
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.3 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
• Curve speed warning
• Weather warning
• Intelligent on-ramp metering
• eCALL
50.6 Vehicle to vehicle communications
Each vehicle communicates with other vehicles and assess the required data. It is the most
advanced technique implemented inITS. It requires very less communication with the center or
infrastructure. Allvehicles will communicate witheach other anddecisions will bemadeby the
vehicle device only. For ex, the ramp meter will work all by itself and no infrastructure device
will be required. Some real time services cannot be provided by infrastructure. In these cases
such type of communication will be helpful. Fig. 50:3 shows the collision warning principle.
Some examples are:
• Approaching vehicle warning
• Blind spot warning
• Co-operative cruise control
• Collision warning
• Lane change assistant
50.7 Summary
Thischapterbrie?ycoverssomepointerstofuturedirectionsofITSdevelopments. Thisinclude
smart cars and smart road and a communication system between them resulting in complete
automation of the tra?c system.
50.8 References
1. L. R Kadiyali. Tra?c Engineering and Transportation Planning. Khanna Publishers,
New Delhi, 1987.
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.4 February 19, 2014
Page 5


Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Chapter 50
Advanced ITS
50.1 Introduction
Some new features in the ITS sector are covered in this section. The ?rst basic concept in any
ITS implementation is SMART CAR.It is thecar with allmodernfeatures. The SMARTCAR
has to be complimented by a SMART ROAD. The developments in the ITS ?eld started with
the infrastructure to infrastructure communications. They formed the basis of further devel-
opment of ITS. Then the I2I communications were upgraded with the vehicle to infrastructure
communications. They are called V2I communications. The latest development is the vehicle
to vehicle communications, i.e. V2V communications.
50.2 Smart car
As mentioned earlier the car is equipped with all the new electronic gadgets. It helps the user
to use service e?ciently. Some of the features of SMART CAR are:
• GPS and on-board communications
• Anti-collision sensors
A smart car must be able to sense, analyze, predict and react to the road environment, which
is the key feature of smart cars. The car works with a central component that monitors
the roadway and the driver. It also evaluates of the potential safety bene?ts. It addresses
navigation, obstacle avoidance and platooning problems. The car aims at expanding the time
horizonforacquiringsafetyrelevantinformationandimprovingprecision,reliabilityandquality
of driving. There are some preventive safety technologies and in-vehicle systems, which sense
the potential danger. The Adaptive Integrated Driver-vehicle Interface (AIDE) project tries
to maximize the e?ciency and safety of advanced driver assistance systems, while minimizing
the workload and distraction imposed by in-vehicle information systems. Almost 95% of the
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.1 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
accidents are due to human factors and in almost three-quarters of the cases human behaviour
is solely to blame. Smart cars present promising potentials to assist drivers in improving their
situational awareness and reducing errors. With cameras monitoring the driver’s gaze and
activity, smart cars attempt to keep the driver’s attention on the road ahead. Physiological
sensors can detect whether the driver is in good condition. The actuators will execute speci?ed
control on the car without the driver’s commands. The smart car will adopt active measures
such as stopping the car in case that the driver is unable to act properly, or applying passive
protection to reduce possible harm in abrupt accidents, for example, popping up airbags.
50.3 Smart road
As mentioned earlier SMART CAR alone cannot operate in a system. Thus along with the
SMART CAR, the infrastructure should also be improved. The infrastructure also should be
well prepared for taking care of smart car. The road equipment will communicate with the
vehicle and provide real time assistance to the user. Provision of Smart road along with Smart
car will complete the Smart features of any facility. It may be possible that the highway forms
a high density platoon of vehicles moving bumper to bumper and this platoon will move at
a speed of 70 kmph or so. That road will be equipped with some sensors may be along the
pavementsandthedecisionsarelefttothecentralunit. Theroaditselfwillshowsomemessages
which can be easily read.
50.4 Infrastructure to Infrastructure Communications
This type of communication is a initial stage in formation of present ITS system. Communica-
tion takes place between infrastructures. Evolution of I2I services led to more advanced vehicle
communications. They arethe easy means of communications. But handling them ona largeis
an area of concern. Fig. 50:1 and 50:2 show the I2I communications in case of ramp metering.
50.5 Vehicle to infrastructure communications
These involve advanced vehicle to infrastructure interface. The communication takes place
between a vehicular device and a infrastructure equipment. It is an improvement over I2I
services. Large communication is possible with this type of communication. Some examples of
V2I communication are:
• Blind merge warning
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.2 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Ramp signals Vehicles entering
the motorway
One vehicle per
lane per green
Vehicles on
the motorway
phase
Figure 50:1: On-ramp metering-1
ONE VEHICLE PER
EACH LANE
STOP
WERE ON
RED
Figure 50:2: On-ramp metering-1
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.3 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
• Curve speed warning
• Weather warning
• Intelligent on-ramp metering
• eCALL
50.6 Vehicle to vehicle communications
Each vehicle communicates with other vehicles and assess the required data. It is the most
advanced technique implemented inITS. It requires very less communication with the center or
infrastructure. Allvehicles will communicate witheach other anddecisions will bemadeby the
vehicle device only. For ex, the ramp meter will work all by itself and no infrastructure device
will be required. Some real time services cannot be provided by infrastructure. In these cases
such type of communication will be helpful. Fig. 50:3 shows the collision warning principle.
Some examples are:
• Approaching vehicle warning
• Blind spot warning
• Co-operative cruise control
• Collision warning
• Lane change assistant
50.7 Summary
Thischapterbrie?ycoverssomepointerstofuturedirectionsofITSdevelopments. Thisinclude
smart cars and smart road and a communication system between them resulting in complete
automation of the tra?c system.
50.8 References
1. L. R Kadiyali. Tra?c Engineering and Transportation Planning. Khanna Publishers,
New Delhi, 1987.
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.4 February 19, 2014
Transportation Systems Engineering 50. Advanced ITS
Brake
Support
Collision
Warning
Figure 50:3: Collision Warning
Dr. Tom V. Mathew, IIT Bombay 50.5 February 19, 2014
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!