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# Travel demand modeling Notes | EduRev

## : Travel demand modeling Notes | EduRev

``` Page 1

CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 5
Travel demand modeling
5.1 Overview
This chapter provides an introduction to travel demand modeling, the most important aspect of transportation
planning. First we will discuss about what is modeling, the concept of transport demand and supply, the
concept of equilibrium, and the traditional four step demand modeling. We may also point to advance trends
in demand modeling.
5.2 Transport modeling
Modeling is an important part of any large scale decision making process in any system. There are large number
of factors that aect the performance of the system. It is not possible for the human brain to keep track of
all the player in system and their interactions and interrelationships. Therefore we resort to models which are
some simplied, at the same time complex enough to reproduce key relationships of the reality. Modeling could
be either physical, symbolic, or mathematical In physical model one would make physical representation of the
reality. For example, model aircrafts used in wind tunnel is an example of physical models. In symbolic model,
with the complex relations could be represented with the help of symbols. Drawing time-space diagram of vehicle
movement is a good example of symbolic models. Mathematical model is the most common type when with the
help of variables, parameters, and equations one could represent highly complex relations. Newton's equations
of motion or Einstein's equation E = mc
2
, can be considered as examples of mathematical model. No model is
a perfect representation of the reality. The important objective is that models seek to isolate key relationships,
and not to replicate the entire structure. Transport modeling is the study of the behavior of individuals in
making decisions regarding the provision and use of transport. Therefore, unlike other engineering models,
transport modeling tools have evolved from many disciplines like economics, psychology, geography, sociology,
and statistics.
5.3 Transport demand and supply
The concept of demand and supply are fundamental to economic theory and is widely applied in the eld to
transport economics. In the area of travel demand and the associated supply of transport infrastructure, the
notions of demand and supply could be applied. However, we must be aware of the fact that the transport
demand is a derived demand, and not a need in itself. That is, people travel not for the sake of travel, but to
practice in activities in dierent locations
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 2

CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 5
Travel demand modeling
5.1 Overview
This chapter provides an introduction to travel demand modeling, the most important aspect of transportation
planning. First we will discuss about what is modeling, the concept of transport demand and supply, the
concept of equilibrium, and the traditional four step demand modeling. We may also point to advance trends
in demand modeling.
5.2 Transport modeling
Modeling is an important part of any large scale decision making process in any system. There are large number
of factors that aect the performance of the system. It is not possible for the human brain to keep track of
all the player in system and their interactions and interrelationships. Therefore we resort to models which are
some simplied, at the same time complex enough to reproduce key relationships of the reality. Modeling could
be either physical, symbolic, or mathematical In physical model one would make physical representation of the
reality. For example, model aircrafts used in wind tunnel is an example of physical models. In symbolic model,
with the complex relations could be represented with the help of symbols. Drawing time-space diagram of vehicle
movement is a good example of symbolic models. Mathematical model is the most common type when with the
help of variables, parameters, and equations one could represent highly complex relations. Newton's equations
of motion or Einstein's equation E = mc
2
, can be considered as examples of mathematical model. No model is
a perfect representation of the reality. The important objective is that models seek to isolate key relationships,
and not to replicate the entire structure. Transport modeling is the study of the behavior of individuals in
making decisions regarding the provision and use of transport. Therefore, unlike other engineering models,
transport modeling tools have evolved from many disciplines like economics, psychology, geography, sociology,
and statistics.
5.3 Transport demand and supply
The concept of demand and supply are fundamental to economic theory and is widely applied in the eld to
transport economics. In the area of travel demand and the associated supply of transport infrastructure, the
notions of demand and supply could be applied. However, we must be aware of the fact that the transport
demand is a derived demand, and not a need in itself. That is, people travel not for the sake of travel, but to
practice in activities in dierent locations
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Volume
Demand
Equilibrium
Supply
Cost
Figure 5:1: Demand supply equilibrium
The concept of equilibrium is central to the supply-demand analysis. It is a normal practice to plot the
supply and demand curve as a function of cost and the intersection is then plotted in the equilibrium point as
shown in Figure 5:1 The demand for travel T is a function of cost C is easy to conceive. The classical approach
denes the supply function as giving the quantity T which would be produced, given a market price C. Since
transport demand is a derived demand, and the benet of transportation on the non-monetary terms(time in
particular), the supply function takes the form in which C is the unit cost associated with meeting a demand T.
Thus, the supply function encapsulates response of the transport system to a given level of demand. In other
words, supply function will answer the question what will be the level of service of the system, if the estimated
demand is loaded to the system. The most common supply function is the link travel time function which
relates the link volume and travel time.
5.4 Travel demand modeling
Travel demand modeling aims to establish the spatial distribution of travel explicitly by means of an appropriate
system of zones. Modeling of demand thus implies a procedure for predicting what travel decisions people would
like to make given the generalized travel cost of each alternatives. The base decisions include the choice of
destination, the choice of the mode, and the choice of the route. Although various modeling approaches are
adopted, we will discuss only the classical transport model popularly known as four-stage model(FSM).
The general form of the four stage model is given in Figure 5:2. The classic model is presented as a sequence
of four sub models: trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip assignment. The models starts with
dening the study area and dividing them into a number of zones and considering all the transport network
in the system. The database also include the current (base year) levels of population, economic activity like
employment, shopping space, educational, and leisure facilities of each zone. Then the trip generation model is
evolved which uses the above data to estimate the total number of trips generated and attracted by each zone.
The next step is the allocation of these trips from each zone to various other destination zones in the study area
using trip distribution models. The output of the above model is a trip matrix which denote the trips from each
zone to every other zones. In the succeeding step the trips are allocated to dierent modes based on the modal
attributes using the modal split models. This is essentially slicing the trip matrix for various modes generated
to a mode specic trip matrix. Finally, each trip matrix is assigned to the route network of that particular
mode using the trip assignment models. The step will give the loading on each link of the network.
The classical model would also be viewed as answering a series of questions (decisions) namely how many
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 3

CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 5
Travel demand modeling
5.1 Overview
This chapter provides an introduction to travel demand modeling, the most important aspect of transportation
planning. First we will discuss about what is modeling, the concept of transport demand and supply, the
concept of equilibrium, and the traditional four step demand modeling. We may also point to advance trends
in demand modeling.
5.2 Transport modeling
Modeling is an important part of any large scale decision making process in any system. There are large number
of factors that aect the performance of the system. It is not possible for the human brain to keep track of
all the player in system and their interactions and interrelationships. Therefore we resort to models which are
some simplied, at the same time complex enough to reproduce key relationships of the reality. Modeling could
be either physical, symbolic, or mathematical In physical model one would make physical representation of the
reality. For example, model aircrafts used in wind tunnel is an example of physical models. In symbolic model,
with the complex relations could be represented with the help of symbols. Drawing time-space diagram of vehicle
movement is a good example of symbolic models. Mathematical model is the most common type when with the
help of variables, parameters, and equations one could represent highly complex relations. Newton's equations
of motion or Einstein's equation E = mc
2
, can be considered as examples of mathematical model. No model is
a perfect representation of the reality. The important objective is that models seek to isolate key relationships,
and not to replicate the entire structure. Transport modeling is the study of the behavior of individuals in
making decisions regarding the provision and use of transport. Therefore, unlike other engineering models,
transport modeling tools have evolved from many disciplines like economics, psychology, geography, sociology,
and statistics.
5.3 Transport demand and supply
The concept of demand and supply are fundamental to economic theory and is widely applied in the eld to
transport economics. In the area of travel demand and the associated supply of transport infrastructure, the
notions of demand and supply could be applied. However, we must be aware of the fact that the transport
demand is a derived demand, and not a need in itself. That is, people travel not for the sake of travel, but to
practice in activities in dierent locations
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Volume
Demand
Equilibrium
Supply
Cost
Figure 5:1: Demand supply equilibrium
The concept of equilibrium is central to the supply-demand analysis. It is a normal practice to plot the
supply and demand curve as a function of cost and the intersection is then plotted in the equilibrium point as
shown in Figure 5:1 The demand for travel T is a function of cost C is easy to conceive. The classical approach
denes the supply function as giving the quantity T which would be produced, given a market price C. Since
transport demand is a derived demand, and the benet of transportation on the non-monetary terms(time in
particular), the supply function takes the form in which C is the unit cost associated with meeting a demand T.
Thus, the supply function encapsulates response of the transport system to a given level of demand. In other
words, supply function will answer the question what will be the level of service of the system, if the estimated
demand is loaded to the system. The most common supply function is the link travel time function which
relates the link volume and travel time.
5.4 Travel demand modeling
Travel demand modeling aims to establish the spatial distribution of travel explicitly by means of an appropriate
system of zones. Modeling of demand thus implies a procedure for predicting what travel decisions people would
like to make given the generalized travel cost of each alternatives. The base decisions include the choice of
destination, the choice of the mode, and the choice of the route. Although various modeling approaches are
adopted, we will discuss only the classical transport model popularly known as four-stage model(FSM).
The general form of the four stage model is given in Figure 5:2. The classic model is presented as a sequence
of four sub models: trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip assignment. The models starts with
dening the study area and dividing them into a number of zones and considering all the transport network
in the system. The database also include the current (base year) levels of population, economic activity like
employment, shopping space, educational, and leisure facilities of each zone. Then the trip generation model is
evolved which uses the above data to estimate the total number of trips generated and attracted by each zone.
The next step is the allocation of these trips from each zone to various other destination zones in the study area
using trip distribution models. The output of the above model is a trip matrix which denote the trips from each
zone to every other zones. In the succeeding step the trips are allocated to dierent modes based on the modal
attributes using the modal split models. This is essentially slicing the trip matrix for various modes generated
to a mode specic trip matrix. Finally, each trip matrix is assigned to the route network of that particular
mode using the trip assignment models. The step will give the loading on each link of the network.
The classical model would also be viewed as answering a series of questions (decisions) namely how many
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007

Trip assignment
Trip generation
Trip distribution
flows, trip matrix
Modal split
Base-year
data
data, zones
Network
Database
Future
planning
data
Figure 5:2: General form of the four stage modeling
trips are generated, where they are going, on what mode they are going, and nally which route they are
adopting. The current approach is to model these decisions using discrete choice theory, which allows the lower
level choices to be made conditional on higher choices. For example, route choice is conditional on the mode
choice. This hierarchical choices of trip is shown in Figure 5:3 The highest level to nd all the trips T
i
originating
from a zone is calculated based on the data and aggregate cost term C
i
***. Based on the aggregate travel cost
C
ij
** from zone i to the destination zone j, the probability p
mjij
of trips going to zone j is computed and
subsequently the trips T
ij
** from zone i to zone j by all modes and all routes are computed. Next, the mode
choice model compute the probability p
mjij
of choosing mode m based on the travel cost C
jm
* from zone i to
zone j, by mode m is determined. Similarly, the route choice gives the trips T
ijmr
from zone i to zone j by
mode m through route r can be computed. Finally the travel demand is loaded to the supply model, as stated
earlier, will produce a performance level. The purpose of the network is usually measured in travel time which
could be converted to travel cost. Although not practiced ideally, one could feed this back into the higher levels
to achieve real equilibrium of the supply and demand.
5.5 Summary
In a nutshell, travel demand modeling aims at explaining where the trips come from and where they go,and
what modes and which routes are used. It provides a zone wise analysis of the trips followed by distribution
of the trips, split the trips mode wise based on the choice of the travelers and nally assigns the trips to the
network. This process helps to understand the eects of future developments in the transport networks on the
trips as well as the in
uence of the choices of the public on the
ows in the network.
5.6 Problems
1. Link travel time function relates travel time and
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.3 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 4

CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 5
Travel demand modeling
5.1 Overview
This chapter provides an introduction to travel demand modeling, the most important aspect of transportation
planning. First we will discuss about what is modeling, the concept of transport demand and supply, the
concept of equilibrium, and the traditional four step demand modeling. We may also point to advance trends
in demand modeling.
5.2 Transport modeling
Modeling is an important part of any large scale decision making process in any system. There are large number
of factors that aect the performance of the system. It is not possible for the human brain to keep track of
all the player in system and their interactions and interrelationships. Therefore we resort to models which are
some simplied, at the same time complex enough to reproduce key relationships of the reality. Modeling could
be either physical, symbolic, or mathematical In physical model one would make physical representation of the
reality. For example, model aircrafts used in wind tunnel is an example of physical models. In symbolic model,
with the complex relations could be represented with the help of symbols. Drawing time-space diagram of vehicle
movement is a good example of symbolic models. Mathematical model is the most common type when with the
help of variables, parameters, and equations one could represent highly complex relations. Newton's equations
of motion or Einstein's equation E = mc
2
, can be considered as examples of mathematical model. No model is
a perfect representation of the reality. The important objective is that models seek to isolate key relationships,
and not to replicate the entire structure. Transport modeling is the study of the behavior of individuals in
making decisions regarding the provision and use of transport. Therefore, unlike other engineering models,
transport modeling tools have evolved from many disciplines like economics, psychology, geography, sociology,
and statistics.
5.3 Transport demand and supply
The concept of demand and supply are fundamental to economic theory and is widely applied in the eld to
transport economics. In the area of travel demand and the associated supply of transport infrastructure, the
notions of demand and supply could be applied. However, we must be aware of the fact that the transport
demand is a derived demand, and not a need in itself. That is, people travel not for the sake of travel, but to
practice in activities in dierent locations
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
Volume
Demand
Equilibrium
Supply
Cost
Figure 5:1: Demand supply equilibrium
The concept of equilibrium is central to the supply-demand analysis. It is a normal practice to plot the
supply and demand curve as a function of cost and the intersection is then plotted in the equilibrium point as
shown in Figure 5:1 The demand for travel T is a function of cost C is easy to conceive. The classical approach
denes the supply function as giving the quantity T which would be produced, given a market price C. Since
transport demand is a derived demand, and the benet of transportation on the non-monetary terms(time in
particular), the supply function takes the form in which C is the unit cost associated with meeting a demand T.
Thus, the supply function encapsulates response of the transport system to a given level of demand. In other
words, supply function will answer the question what will be the level of service of the system, if the estimated
demand is loaded to the system. The most common supply function is the link travel time function which
relates the link volume and travel time.
5.4 Travel demand modeling
Travel demand modeling aims to establish the spatial distribution of travel explicitly by means of an appropriate
system of zones. Modeling of demand thus implies a procedure for predicting what travel decisions people would
like to make given the generalized travel cost of each alternatives. The base decisions include the choice of
destination, the choice of the mode, and the choice of the route. Although various modeling approaches are
adopted, we will discuss only the classical transport model popularly known as four-stage model(FSM).
The general form of the four stage model is given in Figure 5:2. The classic model is presented as a sequence
of four sub models: trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip assignment. The models starts with
dening the study area and dividing them into a number of zones and considering all the transport network
in the system. The database also include the current (base year) levels of population, economic activity like
employment, shopping space, educational, and leisure facilities of each zone. Then the trip generation model is
evolved which uses the above data to estimate the total number of trips generated and attracted by each zone.
The next step is the allocation of these trips from each zone to various other destination zones in the study area
using trip distribution models. The output of the above model is a trip matrix which denote the trips from each
zone to every other zones. In the succeeding step the trips are allocated to dierent modes based on the modal
attributes using the modal split models. This is essentially slicing the trip matrix for various modes generated
to a mode specic trip matrix. Finally, each trip matrix is assigned to the route network of that particular
mode using the trip assignment models. The step will give the loading on each link of the network.
The classical model would also be viewed as answering a series of questions (decisions) namely how many
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007

Trip assignment
Trip generation
Trip distribution
flows, trip matrix
Modal split
Base-year
data
data, zones
Network
Database
Future
planning
data
Figure 5:2: General form of the four stage modeling
trips are generated, where they are going, on what mode they are going, and nally which route they are
adopting. The current approach is to model these decisions using discrete choice theory, which allows the lower
level choices to be made conditional on higher choices. For example, route choice is conditional on the mode
choice. This hierarchical choices of trip is shown in Figure 5:3 The highest level to nd all the trips T
i
originating
from a zone is calculated based on the data and aggregate cost term C
i
***. Based on the aggregate travel cost
C
ij
** from zone i to the destination zone j, the probability p
mjij
of trips going to zone j is computed and
subsequently the trips T
ij
** from zone i to zone j by all modes and all routes are computed. Next, the mode
choice model compute the probability p
mjij
of choosing mode m based on the travel cost C
jm
* from zone i to
zone j, by mode m is determined. Similarly, the route choice gives the trips T
ijmr
from zone i to zone j by
mode m through route r can be computed. Finally the travel demand is loaded to the supply model, as stated
earlier, will produce a performance level. The purpose of the network is usually measured in travel time which
could be converted to travel cost. Although not practiced ideally, one could feed this back into the higher levels
to achieve real equilibrium of the supply and demand.
5.5 Summary
In a nutshell, travel demand modeling aims at explaining where the trips come from and where they go,and
what modes and which routes are used. It provides a zone wise analysis of the trips followed by distribution
of the trips, split the trips mode wise based on the choice of the travelers and nally assigns the trips to the
network. This process helps to understand the eects of future developments in the transport networks on the
trips as well as the in
uence of the choices of the public on the
ows in the network.
5.6 Problems
1. Link travel time function relates travel time and
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 5.3 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 5. TRAVEL DEMAND MODELING NPTEL May 3, 2007
performance
Supply model
network
Data
T
ijmr
T
ijm
T
ij
T
i
p
jji
p
rjijm Route choice C
ijmr
Destination choice C
i
j  
Trip frequency (C
i
)
Mode choice C
ijm p
mjij
Figure 5:3: Demand supply equilibrium
(c) level of service
(d) none of the above
2. What is the rst stage of four-stage travel demand modeling?
(a) Trip generation
(b) Trip distribution
(c) Modal split
(d) Trac assignment
5.7 Solutions
1. Link travel time function relates travel time and