The word disease (dis-ease) literally means disturbed ease or uncomfortable. Thus disease can be defined as "Malfunctioning of the body or a part of it due to one reason or the other".
Disease is a condition of the body or a part of it in which functions are disturbed or deranged.
|Symptoms of disease||Signs of disease|
|A symptom is a change in normal functioning of the body which is felt by patient but can not be observed by the doctor, a patient has to tell the doctor about these e.g. stomachache, headache||A sign of a disease is a change in the bodily function or structure that can be observed. e.g. Rashes, swelling of gland|
Signs and symptoms help in the diagnosis of a disease. Diagnosis means the process of identifying a disease. In many case doctor also needs the help of laboratory tests of blood, urine, stool etc and diagnostic images like x rays to diagnose a disease.
Pathogens: Disease causing organisms are called pathogens or infectious agents.
Vectors: Animals or insects that carry the infectious agents from one person to another and spread a disease are called vectors.
|Insect Vector||Disease Transmitted|
(iii) Yellow fever, Dengue, Filariasis
(i) House fly
(ii) Sand fly
(iii) Tse-tse fly
(i) Thyphoid, Diarrhoea, Dysentry, Cholera,
(ii) Kala azar, Oriental Sore
(ii) Sleeping sickness
|3. Louse||Epidemic typhus|
|4. Rat flea||Bubonic plague|
First to look for scientific explanation for diseases. He is remembered
He used non poisonous leeches as an anticoagulant during surgery so
He first gave concept of digestive metabolism and immunity. He is
Father of Modern pathology.
Father of Immunity:
Edward Jenner (small pox vaccine)
Father of Modern Bacteriology:
Robert Koch (Anthrax T.B., cholera)
Acute and Chronic Diseases
A disease that occurs suddenly and lasts for a short period of time is called an acute disease.
Example: Common cold, Malaria disease.
A disease that lasts for a long time is called chronic disease e.g. tuberculosis.
|Acute Disease||Chronic Disease|
|Duration: It is of shortor duration.||It is longer duration disease.|
|Persons: Every person suffers from an acute disease at one time or the other.||Only some persons suffer from chronic diseases.|
|Body Damage: Being of short duration, it|
does not damage any organ.
|It does damage the affected organ due to prolonged duration.|
|Recovery: The recovery is generally complete after the treatment.||The recovery is seldom complete even after treatment.|
|Effect: There is neither loss of weight nor|
feeling of weakness.
|There is often a loss of weight accompained by feeling of tiredness.|
|Loss: Interruption of work and loss of efficiency are of short duration.||Interrupition of work and loss of efficiency are prolonged.|
|Example: Diarrhoea, Typhoid.||Example: Tuberculosis, Diabetes.|
(i) Intrinsic or internal factors: Factors inside the body or within the body.
(ii) External or extrinsic factors: Factors outside the body.
|Classification of some common diseases of human|
|S.no.||Type of diseases||Causes of diseases||Example|
|1||Physical||Temprory or permanent damage to body parts.||Bone fracture, leprosy|
|2||Infectious||Invasion of the body by other|
organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi protozoans, nemetodes, insects, etc.)
|Typhoid, diarrhoea, malaria, hepatitis, rabies, AIDS, T.B., polio, influenza, cholera.|
|3||Deficiency||Inadequate diet||Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, scurvy, rickets, anaemia, goitre, xerophthalmia, beriberi.|
|4||Inherited||Defective genes passed on from|
parents to offspring
|Haemophilia, sickle-cell anaemia, cystic fibrosis.|
|5||Degenerative||Organs and tissues wear away and do not work so well with age.||Arthritis, poor sight and hearing defects.|
|6||Mental||Brain damage or psychological.||Depression, paranoia.|
|7||Social||Social interactions with family friends and strangers.||Drug dependence alcoholism, smoking, unhealthy life, social isolation.|
Disease causing microbes can spread through the air. This occurs through the little droplets thrown out by an infected person who cough or sneezes. Disease can also be spread through water. When infectious agents get mixed with drinking water.
Some diseases are spread by sexual contacts or blood transfusions animals can also carry infectious agents.
If they enter from the air via nose, they are likely to go to the lungs. If they enter through the mouth they can stay in gut lining.
Malaria causing microbes enter through a mosquito bite and will go to the liver and then to Red blood cells but virus of Japanese encephalitis or brain fever will similarly enter through mosquito bite will enter in brain or goes to infect brain.
The signs and symptoms of a disease will thus depend on the tissue or organs which the microbes target.
Toxins released by Escherichia coli cause mild diarrhoea to severe dehydration.Shigellosis, caused by Shigella, is characterised by frequent passage of stools with blood and mucus and abdominal cramps.
Clostridium botulinum causes food poisoning or botulism from taking preserved foods (dibba-bund food).
|1||Polio/Poliomyelitis||Polio virus||Fever, headache, Paralysis Prevention by|
OPV - ORAL Polio vaccine.
|2||Influenza||Orthomyxovirus or Influenza virus||Sneezing, fever, headache. Muscular Pains, Coughing. Discharge from nose, Antibiotic|
suggested by doctor.
|3||Measles||Paramyxovirus||High grade fever, white brown patches on|
body and blisters Antibiotics and M.M.R.
Pox virus/ varicella
|Rashes on body with fever (Rashes are dewdrop like in appearance)|
|5||M U M P S||Paramyxovirus||Painful swelling in Parotid gland|
Anti biotics - Mumps vaccine
Dengue fever or
Break bone fever
vector Aedes egypti
Fever, Pain in muscles and joints
hemorrhagic condition in body.
Rhabdovirus or street virus
vector- Dog, cat, wild animal
|Affect CNS- Madness hydrophobia due to laryngeal spasm and 100% death occur|
vaccine - Human diploid cell culture vaccine.
|1||Malaria||Plasmodium SPS||High fever with chill of intermittent|
Periodically Pain in joints - Quinine
|2||Amoebiasis||Entamoeba histolytica||Intestinal spasms dysentry Antibiotics|
|3||African sleeping sickness||Trypanosoma gambiens||Patient feels sleepy, nervous system impairment|
|4||Kala azar||Leishmania donovani||High fever associated with enlargement|
of spleen and liver
|5||Diarrhoea||Giardia intestinalis||Vomiting loose motions|
Uncontrolled , abnormal and excessive mitotic division of cells is called cancer
Oncology: Study of cancer is called oncology.
Cancerous cells: The abnormal and undifferentiated cells are called cancerous cells.
Cancer is a non infections disease but cancer cells spread from one part to another part of body through blood lymph etc.
Tumour or Neoplasm: The abnormal tissue that grows continuously forms a tumour. Tumour's are of two types (1) Benign, (2) Malignant
Carcinogens: The factor that induce cancer are called carcinogens they include (i) Pollutants (ii) Radiations (iii) Tobacco (iv) Biological agents (v) Mechanical agents.
Symptoms: Initially a lump or swelling or sore development followed by unexplained loss of weight, difficulty in swallowing, Persistent cough etc.
Types of cancer depending on the organs affected
(i) Carcinoma: In skin glands, lungs, breast, pancreas and stomach
(ii) Sarcoma: In connective tissues, bones, muscles.
(iii) Leukemia: Increase in no. of white blood cells.
Metastasis: The stage of cancer in which it becomes malignant and spreads to different body is called metastasis.
Diagnosis can be done by endoscopy and biopsy
Cure: (i) Radiation therapy (ii) Chemo therapy (iii) Surgery
AIDS: Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome.
Casual Agent: Human immuno deficiency virus H.I.V. This virus belong to retrovirus group of viruses.
HIV gradually reduces the efficiency of human immune system. This make the body vulnerable to other life threatening disease that finally causes patient's death.
(i) Transfusion of infected blood.
(ii) Sharing of needle with an infected person.
(iii) Having sexual intercourse with an infected person.
(iv) An unborn child can get infection from the mother.
(v) Infected mother's milk can infect an infant.
HIV is not contracted by touching an infected person nor can it be contracted by breathing in the virus when patient coughs or sneeze.
Signs and symptoms of AIDS: (i) Swollen lymph glands (ii) Weight loss (iii) Frequent fever (iv) Night sweat (v) Diarrhoea
The disease may affect the central nervous system which may cause memory loss and difficulty in speaking.
Prevention and control: No drug has been developed to cure AIDS only prevention is cure. A patient is usually given a combination of drug that manage to slow down the progress of that disease. Scientists are working on drugs that promise to cure this disease in the near future.
1. For blood transfusion always use blood which has been screened for HIV.
2. Use of disposable needles and syringes blade or razors
3. Avoid multiple sex partnership
4. Condoms can be used to prevent the transmission of HIV through sexual fluids.
The drug zidovudine (AZT) stops HIV replicating by binding with reverse transcriptase enzyme and blocking its action. But it has a side effect, i.e., it causes anaemia.
(i) Yellowing of skin and whites of eyes This condition referred to as jaundice
(ii) Dark urine
(iii) Whitish Stools
Note: The yellowing is because of the presence of excessive bilirubin (a bile pigment) in the blood.
Viral hepatitis is caused by different strains of hepatitis virus. Hepatitis caused by a virus is named after it. Thus we have hepatitis A, hepatitis B....... hepatitis G.Named after the strains ABCDEF and G.
Transmission of HEPATITIS
(i) Some strains of Hepatitis like hepatitis A is transmitted through contaminated food or water.
(ii) Hepatitis B ® Through blood, semen, saliva, breast milk.
General Hepatitis patient need 4 weeks to recover but certain types of hepatitis can cause death.
Prevention and Control : A hepatitis patient is advised to take light food with high carbohydrate and low fat to give rest to the liver An antiviral injection (interferon) controls disease. The patient should take bed rest.
Good sanitation prevent the spread of disease by food and water use clean and hygienic water for drinking. Tested blood should be used for transfusion. use of disposable needle and syrings.
vaccine like A- vaccine, Engerix B, Shenva-B, Enivac-B, Provides immunity against hepatitis A and B.
Hemophilia is sex linked hereditary disease. Genes of this disease found on sex chromosomes.
Characters: In case of disease blood clots very slow so patient die due to excess of hemorrhage.
Hemophilia is caused by a recessive gene due to presence of two x chromosome. The disease is not developed in woman inspite of presence of gene for hemophilia on x chromosome. This is due to suppression of expression of recessive gene in presence of dominant gene.
While in man the recessive gene can be expressed if present on x chromosome. Due to presence of only one x chromosome and y chromosome in the genotype. Women is known as a carrier, she herself does not show the symptoms but pass the gene to off spring.
Colour blindness/ Daltonism
It is a recessive sex linked defect in which human beings are unable to distinguish red and green colour. Its genes are also situated on sex chromosome X. In colour blindness womens are found generally as carrier and men as patients. Heredity of colour blindness is similar to that of hemophilia.
The treatment of viral infections is more difficult than that of bacterial infection. For each type of viral infection, human body produces its own antiviral protein, called interferon (IFN). Interferon
is released from the infected and dying host cells. On reaching the un infected cells, IFN makes them resistant to the virus infection. Interferon have been proved to be effective in treating influenza and hepatitis.Immunization: Stimulating the body to produce antibodies by artificial means is known as Immunization.
|Abdominal spasm, insomia, vomiting|
|2||Dracunculiasis||Dracunculus medinensis||Blisters on skin of arms shoulder and legs|
|3||Elephantiasis or filariasis||Wuchereria bancrofti||Swelling of hand scrotum testis and breasts|
|4||Taeniasis||Taenia solium||Abdominal pain, nausea, Anemia, loss of appetite, indigestion, nervous disorders|
|S.NO.||Cause||Name of disease due to deficiency||Symptoms of Disease|
Infants - below 1 year age
|Shrivelled appearance, thinning of limbs Prominent ribs, retarded physical and|
Mental growth. digestive disorder,
|Kwashiorkor (1–3 year age)||loss of appetite stuntedgrowth, bulging eyes, enlarged stomach, long, thin and curved legs.|
|3||Iron||Anaemia||Becomes pale, loose appetite feels tired|
|Pernicious anaemia||Person become pale, loss of appetite, feels tired reduced number of RBC|
|5||Folic acid||Macrocytic anaemia||Become pale, loose appetite, feels tired|
reduced growth of RBC
|6||Iodine||Goitre||Abnormal enlargement of thyroid, swelling|
in the neck reduced thyroid function,
|7||Vitamin A (Retinol)||Xeropthalmia||Night blindness dryness of cornea|
|Twisted, thin, soft, bent bones, deformed ribs|
|Beri-Beri||Muscular dystrophy, Nervous disorder|
|Pellagra||4D' syndrome (dermatitis, diarrhoea, dementia death)|
|Scurvy||Bleeding gums, loosening and falling of teeth, loss of weight.|
|2||Hyper sensitivity||Allergy||Sneezing, coughing, watering of eyes|
asthma, hay fever.
growth of cells
|Cancer and tumour||loss of weight, person become weak can lead to death or destruction of affected organ.|