The Himalayan ecosystem is highly vulnerable to damage, both due to geological reasons and on account of the stress caused by increased pressure of population, exploitation of natural resources and other related challenges. These aspects may be exacerbated due to the impact of climate change. It is possible that climate change may adversely impact the Himalayan ecosystem through increased temperature altered precipitation patterns, episodes of drought and biotic influences.
This would not only impact the very sustenance of the indigenous communities in uplands but also the life of downstream dwellers across the country and beyond.
Therefore, there is an urgent need for giving special attention to sustain the Himalayan ecosystem. This would require conscious efforts for conserving all the representative systems.
Further, it needs to be emphasized that the endemics with restricted distribution, and most often with specialized habitat requirements, are among the most vulnerable elements. In this respect the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, with rich endemic diversity, is vulnerable to climate change.
The Threats include possible loss of genetic resources and species, habitats and concomitantly a decrease in ecosystem services. Therefore, conservation of endemic elements in representative ecosystems/habitats assumes a great significance while drawing conservation plans for the region.
Towards achieving the above, we will have to shift towards contemporary conservation approaches, which include a paradigm of landscape level interconnectivity between protected area systems. The concept advocates a shift from the species-habitat focus to an inclusive focus on expanding the biogeographic range so that natural adjustments to climate change can proceed without being restrictive.
1. Consider the following statements:
According to the passage, the adverse impact of climate change on an ecosystem can be a
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
UPSC will always try to trick you giving options that will relate to the passage text, but will be an extreme version of it. For e.g. in statement 2: it says "disappearance of the ecosystem itself". First statement too is extreme, but you can find its mention in the passage.
Lesson is: Be careful of extreme and emphasizing words like ONLY, NECESSARILY, PERMANENT, TOTALLY, COMPLETELY etc.
2. Which one of the following statements best implies the need to shift toward contemporary conservation approach?
On first look, it seems that all options except (d) are correct. But the reverse is the case.
Read the question carefully. It asks for the 'need' to shift, not the 'cause' of shifting to contemporary conservation practices. If cause was asked then all except (d) would be correct.
So, If you are confused in picking up the right option, you have not read the question carefully. Even a single word can make all the difference.
Lesson is: Be careful with the 'keywords'.
3. What is the most important message conveyed by the passage?
Even though all the options mentioned in the question have been conveyed by the passage, it asks specifically for the 'important message' - not 'concern', or 'fact' etc. Look at the 'keyword' here.
If it was 'most important concern' in the question, then the answers should have been (c) or (d).
If it was 'most important fact', answer would have been (a).
Lesson is: Be careful with the 'keywords'.
4. With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made:
Which of the above assumptions is/are correct?
That's a cakewalk. 1 and 3 cannot be correct. So the answer has to be (b). Simple elimination will save you a lot of time and makes your job easy.
Lesson is: First eliminate, then choose.
It is often forgotten that globalization, is not only about policies on international economic relationships and transactions, but has equally to do with domestic policies of a nation. Policy changes necessitated by meeting the internationally set conditions (by WTO etc.) of free trade and investment flows obviously affect domestic producers and investors. But the basic philosophy underlying globalization emphasizes absolute freedom to markets to determine prices and production and distribution patterns, and view government interventions as processes that create distortions and bring in inefficiency. Thus, public enterprises have to be privatized through disinvestments and sales; sectors and activities hitherto reserved for the public sector have to be opened to the private sector. This logic extends to the social services like education and health. Any restrictions on the adjustments in workforce by way of retrenchment of workers should also be removed and exit should be made easier by removing any restrictions on closures. Employment and wages should be governed by free play of market forces, as any measure to regulate them can discourage investment and also create inefficiency in production.
Above all, in line with the overall philosophy of reduction in the role of the state, fiscal reforms should be undertaken to have generally low levels of taxation and government expenditure should be kept to the minimum to abide by the principle of fiscal prudence. All these are policy actions on the domestic front and are not directly related to the core items of the globalization agenda, namely free international flow of goods and finance.
5. According to the passage, under the globalization, government interventions are viewed as processes leading to
Pretty simple. Direct mention has been made in the passage.
6. According to the passage, the basic philosophy of globalization is to
Although direct mention has not been made, its there in the passage in bits and pieces. So while reading the passage, you should be able to grasp the essence of it. Confusion reduces.
Lesson: While reading try to get the essence (central core/idea/message/view) of the passage.
7. According to the passage, which of the following is/are necessary for ensuring globalization?
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Again apply elimination to save time. Statement 2 is ofcourse incorrect. So (b) (d) are out. and Statement 3 is ofcourse correct (you know from the previous answer). So, answer has to be (c).
8. According to the passage, in the process globalization the State should have
Directions for the following 4 (four) items:
The following graph shows the average profit of two fruit-sellers A and B in thousands (Rs.) per year from the year 1995 to 2000.
Consider the graph and answer the 4 (four) items that follow:
9. In which year is the average profit of A and B same?
Where the graph intersects, they have the same value across the y axis (i.e. average profits)
10. What is the difference between the average profit of B and A in the year 1998?
Since you can't calculate exact amount, look at the graph closely to first eliminate options (a) and (b). Then average profit of B is ofcourse greater than A. Answer has to be positive. Its (c)
11. How much more average profit did A make in the year 2000 than in the year 1999?
Clear from the graph.
12. What is the trend of the average profit of B from the year 1997 to the year 2000?
Clear from the graph.
13. The following table shows the marks obtained by two students in different subjects:
The difference in the mean aggregate percentage marks of the students is
Add total marks of student A; divide by total maximum marks- and find the percentage. Do the same for B. You have the answer.
14. Examine the following figure:
Which one of the following figures has the above figure embedded in it?
Pure visual observation. Try tracing the Q figure using pencils in the option figures. It will be easier to find the right one.
15. Consider the following matrix:
Which one of the following figures fits into blank part of the above matrix?
The pattern is - of the two arrows in the first column, the second arrow flips by 180 degrees in the next column (second). In the third column, both arrows flip by 180 degrees.
16. The following table gives population and total income of a city for four years:
In crores (Rs.)
Which one of the following statements correct in respect of the above data ?
(a) Population increased by 5% or more every year.
(b) Income increased by 10% or more every year.
(c) Per capita income was always above 5,000.
(d) Per capita income was highest in 1994.
Simple calculations for every option. You have the answer.
A trick to calculate percentages faster
To calculate % growth in population - look at the growth from 1992-1993.
Its [(21-20)/20] X 100 = (1/20)X100 = 5%. Now you know that every year the growth is by 1 lakh, but the denominator base (population) is growing. For 1993-1994, its 1/21, for 1994-1995, its 1/22.
So as the denominator grows in a fraction, and nominator remains constant, the value of the fraction will be lesser each time i.e. less than 5% for all coming years. So you need not calculate percentage growth for all years and waste your precious time.
17. Consider the table given below in which the numbers bear certain relationship among themselves along the rows:
Which one of the following numbers is the missing number indicated above by X?
18. Consider the following matrix with one empty block in the lower extreme corner:
Which of the following figures could fit in the empty block and thus complete the matrix?
The pattern is very obvious. The squares are increasing and circles decreasing in a particular fashion across the next right columns. Extend logically, thats all.
19. With reference to the figure given below number of different routes from S to T without retracing from U and/or V (T is the next node after V), is
There are two ways of doing it.
Technique 1: The Long one and obvious
You keep counting the number of routes starting from S to U to V to T.
Technique 2 : Short Cut
Multiply the number of nodes from S, U and V leading towards T. It is 3 X 2 X 3 = 18.
Reason: Each path that you will start on (lets say from S) will have to go through all the paths
Number of ways you can reach U from S is 3. The number of ways you can reach V from U is 2. So the number of ways you can reach from S to V will logically be 3 X 2 = 6. Similarily logically extend it to T, it becomes 6X3 =18.
20. Consider the following figures: