Page 1 NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 72 Module 5 : Lecture 1 VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (Fundamental Aspects) Overview Being highly non-linear due to the convective acceleration terms, the Navier-Stokes equations are difficult to handle in a physical situation. Moreover, there are no general analytical schemes for solving the nonlinear partial differential equations. However, there are few applications where the convective acceleration vanishes due to the nature of the geometry of the flow system. So, the exact solutions are often possible. Since, the Navier-Stokes equations are applicable to laminar and turbulent flows, the complication again arise due to fluctuations in velocity components for turbulent flow. So, these exact solutions are referred to laminar flows for which the velocity is independent of time (steady flow) or dependent on time (unsteady flow) in a well- defined manner. The solutions to these categories of the flow field can be applied to the internal and external flows. The flows that are bounded by walls are called as internal flows while the external flows are unconfined and free to expand. The classical example of internal flow is the pipe/duct flow while the flow over a flat plate is considered as external flow. Few classical cases of flow fields will be discussed in this module pertaining to internal and external flows. Laminar and Turbulent Flows The fluid flow in a duct may have three characteristics denoted as laminar, turbulent and transitional. The curves shown in Fig. 5.1.1, represents the x-component of the velocity as a function of time at a point ‘A’ in the flow. For laminar flow, there is one component of velocity ˆ V ui = ? and random component of velocity normal to the axis becomes predominant for turbulent flows i.e. ˆ ˆˆ V u i v j wk = + + ? . When the flow is laminar, there are occasional disturbances that damps out quickly. The flow Reynolds number plays a vital role in deciding this characteristic. Initially, the flow may start with laminar at moderate Reynolds number. With subsequent increase in Reynolds number, the orderly flow pattern is lost and fluctuations become more predominant. When the Reynolds number crosses some limiting value, the flow is characterized as turbulent. The changeover phase is called as transition to turbulence. Further, if the Page 2 NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 72 Module 5 : Lecture 1 VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (Fundamental Aspects) Overview Being highly non-linear due to the convective acceleration terms, the Navier-Stokes equations are difficult to handle in a physical situation. Moreover, there are no general analytical schemes for solving the nonlinear partial differential equations. However, there are few applications where the convective acceleration vanishes due to the nature of the geometry of the flow system. So, the exact solutions are often possible. Since, the Navier-Stokes equations are applicable to laminar and turbulent flows, the complication again arise due to fluctuations in velocity components for turbulent flow. So, these exact solutions are referred to laminar flows for which the velocity is independent of time (steady flow) or dependent on time (unsteady flow) in a well- defined manner. The solutions to these categories of the flow field can be applied to the internal and external flows. The flows that are bounded by walls are called as internal flows while the external flows are unconfined and free to expand. The classical example of internal flow is the pipe/duct flow while the flow over a flat plate is considered as external flow. Few classical cases of flow fields will be discussed in this module pertaining to internal and external flows. Laminar and Turbulent Flows The fluid flow in a duct may have three characteristics denoted as laminar, turbulent and transitional. The curves shown in Fig. 5.1.1, represents the x-component of the velocity as a function of time at a point ‘A’ in the flow. For laminar flow, there is one component of velocity ˆ V ui = ? and random component of velocity normal to the axis becomes predominant for turbulent flows i.e. ˆ ˆˆ V u i v j wk = + + ? . When the flow is laminar, there are occasional disturbances that damps out quickly. The flow Reynolds number plays a vital role in deciding this characteristic. Initially, the flow may start with laminar at moderate Reynolds number. With subsequent increase in Reynolds number, the orderly flow pattern is lost and fluctuations become more predominant. When the Reynolds number crosses some limiting value, the flow is characterized as turbulent. The changeover phase is called as transition to turbulence. Further, if the NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 2 of 72 Reynolds number is decreased from turbulent region, then flow may come back to the laminar state. This phenomenon is known as relaminarization. Fig. 5.1.1: Time dependent fluid velocity at a point. The primary parameter affecting the transition is the Reynolds number defined as, Re UL ? µ = where, U is the average stream velocity and L is the characteristics length/width. The flow regimes may be characterized for the following approximate ranges; 23 34 46 6 0 Re 1: Highly viscous laminar motion 1 Re 100 : Laminar and Reynolds number dependence 10 Re 10 : Laminar boundary layer 10 Re 10 : Transition to turbulence 10 Re 10 : Turbulent boundary layer Re 10 : Turbulent and Reyn < < < < < < < < < < > olds number dependence Fully Developed Flow The fully developed steady flow in a pipe may be driven by gravity and /or pressure forces. If the pipe is held horizontal, gravity has no effect except for variation in hydrostatic pressure. The pressure difference between the two sections of the pipe, essentially drives the flow while the viscous effects provides the restraining force that exactly balances the pressure forces. This leads to the fluid moving with constant velocity (no acceleration) through the pipe. If the viscous forces are absent, then pressure will remain constant throughout except for hydrostatic variation. Page 3 NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 72 Module 5 : Lecture 1 VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (Fundamental Aspects) Overview Being highly non-linear due to the convective acceleration terms, the Navier-Stokes equations are difficult to handle in a physical situation. Moreover, there are no general analytical schemes for solving the nonlinear partial differential equations. However, there are few applications where the convective acceleration vanishes due to the nature of the geometry of the flow system. So, the exact solutions are often possible. Since, the Navier-Stokes equations are applicable to laminar and turbulent flows, the complication again arise due to fluctuations in velocity components for turbulent flow. So, these exact solutions are referred to laminar flows for which the velocity is independent of time (steady flow) or dependent on time (unsteady flow) in a well- defined manner. The solutions to these categories of the flow field can be applied to the internal and external flows. The flows that are bounded by walls are called as internal flows while the external flows are unconfined and free to expand. The classical example of internal flow is the pipe/duct flow while the flow over a flat plate is considered as external flow. Few classical cases of flow fields will be discussed in this module pertaining to internal and external flows. Laminar and Turbulent Flows The fluid flow in a duct may have three characteristics denoted as laminar, turbulent and transitional. The curves shown in Fig. 5.1.1, represents the x-component of the velocity as a function of time at a point ‘A’ in the flow. For laminar flow, there is one component of velocity ˆ V ui = ? and random component of velocity normal to the axis becomes predominant for turbulent flows i.e. ˆ ˆˆ V u i v j wk = + + ? . When the flow is laminar, there are occasional disturbances that damps out quickly. The flow Reynolds number plays a vital role in deciding this characteristic. Initially, the flow may start with laminar at moderate Reynolds number. With subsequent increase in Reynolds number, the orderly flow pattern is lost and fluctuations become more predominant. When the Reynolds number crosses some limiting value, the flow is characterized as turbulent. The changeover phase is called as transition to turbulence. Further, if the NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 2 of 72 Reynolds number is decreased from turbulent region, then flow may come back to the laminar state. This phenomenon is known as relaminarization. Fig. 5.1.1: Time dependent fluid velocity at a point. The primary parameter affecting the transition is the Reynolds number defined as, Re UL ? µ = where, U is the average stream velocity and L is the characteristics length/width. The flow regimes may be characterized for the following approximate ranges; 23 34 46 6 0 Re 1: Highly viscous laminar motion 1 Re 100 : Laminar and Reynolds number dependence 10 Re 10 : Laminar boundary layer 10 Re 10 : Transition to turbulence 10 Re 10 : Turbulent boundary layer Re 10 : Turbulent and Reyn < < < < < < < < < < > olds number dependence Fully Developed Flow The fully developed steady flow in a pipe may be driven by gravity and /or pressure forces. If the pipe is held horizontal, gravity has no effect except for variation in hydrostatic pressure. The pressure difference between the two sections of the pipe, essentially drives the flow while the viscous effects provides the restraining force that exactly balances the pressure forces. This leads to the fluid moving with constant velocity (no acceleration) through the pipe. If the viscous forces are absent, then pressure will remain constant throughout except for hydrostatic variation. NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 3 of 72 In an internal flow through a long duct is shown in Fig. 5.1.2. There is an entrance region where the inviscid upstream flow converges and enters the tube. The viscous boundary layer grows downstream, retards the axial flow ( ) , u rx ?? ?? at the wall and accelerates the core flow in the center by maintaining the same flow rate. constant Q u dA = = ? (5.1.1) Fig. 5.1.2: Velocity profile and pressure changes in a duct flow. Page 4 NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 72 Module 5 : Lecture 1 VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (Fundamental Aspects) Overview Being highly non-linear due to the convective acceleration terms, the Navier-Stokes equations are difficult to handle in a physical situation. Moreover, there are no general analytical schemes for solving the nonlinear partial differential equations. However, there are few applications where the convective acceleration vanishes due to the nature of the geometry of the flow system. So, the exact solutions are often possible. Since, the Navier-Stokes equations are applicable to laminar and turbulent flows, the complication again arise due to fluctuations in velocity components for turbulent flow. So, these exact solutions are referred to laminar flows for which the velocity is independent of time (steady flow) or dependent on time (unsteady flow) in a well- defined manner. The solutions to these categories of the flow field can be applied to the internal and external flows. The flows that are bounded by walls are called as internal flows while the external flows are unconfined and free to expand. The classical example of internal flow is the pipe/duct flow while the flow over a flat plate is considered as external flow. Few classical cases of flow fields will be discussed in this module pertaining to internal and external flows. Laminar and Turbulent Flows The fluid flow in a duct may have three characteristics denoted as laminar, turbulent and transitional. The curves shown in Fig. 5.1.1, represents the x-component of the velocity as a function of time at a point ‘A’ in the flow. For laminar flow, there is one component of velocity ˆ V ui = ? and random component of velocity normal to the axis becomes predominant for turbulent flows i.e. ˆ ˆˆ V u i v j wk = + + ? . When the flow is laminar, there are occasional disturbances that damps out quickly. The flow Reynolds number plays a vital role in deciding this characteristic. Initially, the flow may start with laminar at moderate Reynolds number. With subsequent increase in Reynolds number, the orderly flow pattern is lost and fluctuations become more predominant. When the Reynolds number crosses some limiting value, the flow is characterized as turbulent. The changeover phase is called as transition to turbulence. Further, if the NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 2 of 72 Reynolds number is decreased from turbulent region, then flow may come back to the laminar state. This phenomenon is known as relaminarization. Fig. 5.1.1: Time dependent fluid velocity at a point. The primary parameter affecting the transition is the Reynolds number defined as, Re UL ? µ = where, U is the average stream velocity and L is the characteristics length/width. The flow regimes may be characterized for the following approximate ranges; 23 34 46 6 0 Re 1: Highly viscous laminar motion 1 Re 100 : Laminar and Reynolds number dependence 10 Re 10 : Laminar boundary layer 10 Re 10 : Transition to turbulence 10 Re 10 : Turbulent boundary layer Re 10 : Turbulent and Reyn < < < < < < < < < < > olds number dependence Fully Developed Flow The fully developed steady flow in a pipe may be driven by gravity and /or pressure forces. If the pipe is held horizontal, gravity has no effect except for variation in hydrostatic pressure. The pressure difference between the two sections of the pipe, essentially drives the flow while the viscous effects provides the restraining force that exactly balances the pressure forces. This leads to the fluid moving with constant velocity (no acceleration) through the pipe. If the viscous forces are absent, then pressure will remain constant throughout except for hydrostatic variation. NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 3 of 72 In an internal flow through a long duct is shown in Fig. 5.1.2. There is an entrance region where the inviscid upstream flow converges and enters the tube. The viscous boundary layer grows downstream, retards the axial flow ( ) , u rx ?? ?? at the wall and accelerates the core flow in the center by maintaining the same flow rate. constant Q u dA = = ? (5.1.1) Fig. 5.1.2: Velocity profile and pressure changes in a duct flow. NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 4 of 72 At a finite distance from entrance, the boundary layers form top and bottom wall merge as shown in Fig. 5.1.2 and the inviscid core disappears, thereby making the flow entirely viscous. The axial velocity adjusts slightly till the entrance length is reached ( ) e xL = and the velocity profile no longer changes in x and ( ) u ur ˜ only. At this stage, the flow is said to be fully-developed for which the velocity profile and wall shear remains constant. Irrespective of laminar or turbulent flow, the pressure drops linearly with x . The typical velocity and temperature profile for laminar fully developed flow in a pipe is shown in Fig. 5.1.2. The most accepted correlations for entrance length in a flow through pipe of diameter ( ) d , are given below; ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 6 ,,, ; so that Re Laminar flow : 0.06 Re Turbulent flow : 4.4 Re e e e e L f dV V Q A Vd Lg L d L d ?µ ? µ = = ?? = = ?? ?? ˜ ˜ (5.1.2) Laminar and Turbulent Shear In the absence of thermal interaction, one needs to solve continuity and momentum equation to obtain pressure and velocity fields. If the density and viscosity of the fluids is assumed to be constant, then the equations take the following form; 2 Continuity: 0 Momentum: u vw x y z dV pg V dt ? ?µ ? ?? ++ = ?? ? = -? + + ? ? ? (5.1.3) Page 5 NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 72 Module 5 : Lecture 1 VISCOUS INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (Fundamental Aspects) Overview Being highly non-linear due to the convective acceleration terms, the Navier-Stokes equations are difficult to handle in a physical situation. Moreover, there are no general analytical schemes for solving the nonlinear partial differential equations. However, there are few applications where the convective acceleration vanishes due to the nature of the geometry of the flow system. So, the exact solutions are often possible. Since, the Navier-Stokes equations are applicable to laminar and turbulent flows, the complication again arise due to fluctuations in velocity components for turbulent flow. So, these exact solutions are referred to laminar flows for which the velocity is independent of time (steady flow) or dependent on time (unsteady flow) in a well- defined manner. The solutions to these categories of the flow field can be applied to the internal and external flows. The flows that are bounded by walls are called as internal flows while the external flows are unconfined and free to expand. The classical example of internal flow is the pipe/duct flow while the flow over a flat plate is considered as external flow. Few classical cases of flow fields will be discussed in this module pertaining to internal and external flows. Laminar and Turbulent Flows The fluid flow in a duct may have three characteristics denoted as laminar, turbulent and transitional. The curves shown in Fig. 5.1.1, represents the x-component of the velocity as a function of time at a point ‘A’ in the flow. For laminar flow, there is one component of velocity ˆ V ui = ? and random component of velocity normal to the axis becomes predominant for turbulent flows i.e. ˆ ˆˆ V u i v j wk = + + ? . When the flow is laminar, there are occasional disturbances that damps out quickly. The flow Reynolds number plays a vital role in deciding this characteristic. Initially, the flow may start with laminar at moderate Reynolds number. With subsequent increase in Reynolds number, the orderly flow pattern is lost and fluctuations become more predominant. When the Reynolds number crosses some limiting value, the flow is characterized as turbulent. The changeover phase is called as transition to turbulence. Further, if the NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 2 of 72 Reynolds number is decreased from turbulent region, then flow may come back to the laminar state. This phenomenon is known as relaminarization. Fig. 5.1.1: Time dependent fluid velocity at a point. The primary parameter affecting the transition is the Reynolds number defined as, Re UL ? µ = where, U is the average stream velocity and L is the characteristics length/width. The flow regimes may be characterized for the following approximate ranges; 23 34 46 6 0 Re 1: Highly viscous laminar motion 1 Re 100 : Laminar and Reynolds number dependence 10 Re 10 : Laminar boundary layer 10 Re 10 : Transition to turbulence 10 Re 10 : Turbulent boundary layer Re 10 : Turbulent and Reyn < < < < < < < < < < > olds number dependence Fully Developed Flow The fully developed steady flow in a pipe may be driven by gravity and /or pressure forces. If the pipe is held horizontal, gravity has no effect except for variation in hydrostatic pressure. The pressure difference between the two sections of the pipe, essentially drives the flow while the viscous effects provides the restraining force that exactly balances the pressure forces. This leads to the fluid moving with constant velocity (no acceleration) through the pipe. If the viscous forces are absent, then pressure will remain constant throughout except for hydrostatic variation. NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 3 of 72 In an internal flow through a long duct is shown in Fig. 5.1.2. There is an entrance region where the inviscid upstream flow converges and enters the tube. The viscous boundary layer grows downstream, retards the axial flow ( ) , u rx ?? ?? at the wall and accelerates the core flow in the center by maintaining the same flow rate. constant Q u dA = = ? (5.1.1) Fig. 5.1.2: Velocity profile and pressure changes in a duct flow. NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 4 of 72 At a finite distance from entrance, the boundary layers form top and bottom wall merge as shown in Fig. 5.1.2 and the inviscid core disappears, thereby making the flow entirely viscous. The axial velocity adjusts slightly till the entrance length is reached ( ) e xL = and the velocity profile no longer changes in x and ( ) u ur ˜ only. At this stage, the flow is said to be fully-developed for which the velocity profile and wall shear remains constant. Irrespective of laminar or turbulent flow, the pressure drops linearly with x . The typical velocity and temperature profile for laminar fully developed flow in a pipe is shown in Fig. 5.1.2. The most accepted correlations for entrance length in a flow through pipe of diameter ( ) d , are given below; ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 6 ,,, ; so that Re Laminar flow : 0.06 Re Turbulent flow : 4.4 Re e e e e L f dV V Q A Vd Lg L d L d ?µ ? µ = = ?? = = ?? ?? ˜ ˜ (5.1.2) Laminar and Turbulent Shear In the absence of thermal interaction, one needs to solve continuity and momentum equation to obtain pressure and velocity fields. If the density and viscosity of the fluids is assumed to be constant, then the equations take the following form; 2 Continuity: 0 Momentum: u vw x y z dV pg V dt ? ?µ ? ?? ++ = ?? ? = -? + + ? ? ? (5.1.3) NPTEL – Mechanical – Principle of Fluid Dynamics Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD Page 5 of 72 This equation is satisfied for laminar as well as turbulent flows and needs to be solved subjected to no-slip condition at the wall with known inlet/exit conditions. In the case of laminar flows, there are no random fluctuations and the shear stress terms are associated with the velocity gradients terms such as, , and u u u xy z µµ µ ?? ? ?? ? in x- direction. For turbulent flows, velocity and pressure varies rapidly randomly as a function of space and time as shown in Fig. 5.1.3. Fig. 5.1.3: Mean and fluctuating turbulent velocity and pressure. One way to approach such problems is to define the mean/time averaged turbulent variables. The time mean of a turbulent velocity ( ) u is defined by, 0 1 T u u dt T = ? (5.1.4) where, T is the averaging period taken as sufficiently longer than the period of fluctuations. If the fluctuation ( ) u uu ' = - is taken as the deviation from its average value, then it leads to zero mean value. However, the mean squared of fluctuation ( ) 2 u ' is not zero and thus is the measure of turbulent intensity. ( ) 22 00 0 11 1 0; 0 TT T u u dt u u dt u u dt TT T '' ' ' = = - = = ? ?? ? (5.1.5) In order to calculate the shear stresses in turbulent flow, it is necessary to know the fluctuating components of velocity. So, the Reynolds time-averaging concept is introduced where the velocity components and pressure are split into mean and fluctuating components; ;; ; u u u v v v w w wp p p '' ' ' =+=+ =+ =+ (5.1.6)Read More

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