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VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. How many different Adivasi groups are there in India?
Ans. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
Q.2. Name any four states where Adivasis are in great numbers. [V. Imp.]
Ans. Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.
Q.3. How are Adivasi societies most distinctive? Give one point. [V. Imp.]
Ans. There is often very little hierarchy among them.
Q.4. How are Adivasis usually portrayed?
Ans. They are usually portrayed in Stereotypical ways in colourful clothes, headgear and through their dancing.
Q.5. What do we usually think about Adivasis?
Ans. We usually think that Adivasis are exotic, primitive and backward.
Q.6. What is the population of Adivasis in Assam? [Imp.]
Ans. There are 70 lakhs Adivasis in Assam.
Q.7. How is Niyamgiri viewed by Dongarria Konds?
Ans. Dongarria Konds, an Adi vasi community, view Niyamgiri as the sacred mountain.
Q.8. Why are Muslims considered as a marginalised community in India today?
Ans. It is because in comparison to other communities, they have always been deprived of the benefits of socioeconomic development.
Q.9. How are Muslims usually identified?
Ans. Muslims are usually identified by their burqa, long beard and fez.
Q.10.Which factor leads to ghettoisation of the Muslim community?
Ans. Social marginalisation of Muslims leads to ghettoisation of this community.
Q.11.What is commonly believed about the Muslims?
Ans. It is commonly believed that the Muslims prefer to send their children to Madarsas.
Q.12.What reality is brought in light by the Sachar Committee?
Ans. Only 4% of Muslim children are in Madarsas, whereas 66% attend government school and 30% private schools.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What do you know about Adivasis? [Imp.]
Ans. The term Adivasi means original inhabitant. This community has close relation with forests. They depend on forests for everything. They cannot think a life without forests. About 8% of India’s population is Adivasi. Adivasis are found in states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Assam, Manipur etc. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in our country. Only in Orissa there are more than 60 different tribal groups. Adivasi societies are also most distinctive because there is often very little hierarchy among them. They practise their own tribal religions, different from Islam, Hinduism and Christianity. They have their own languages, which are as old as Sanskrit. Santhali is one of the languages which has the largest numbers of speakers.
Q.2. How are Adivasi stereotyped? [Imp.]
Ans. Whenever we talk about Adivasis, their fixed images come into our mind. We have a fixed impression about them. We believe that they are exotic, primitive and backward. Their colourful costumes, headgear, dancing and typical life style often give an impression that they lack advancement. We also believe that they are resistant to change or new ideas. This stereotyping about the Adivasi community leads to their discrimination and marginalisation.
Q.3. Describe various reasons that forced Adivasis to move from their lands. [V. Imp.]
Ans. Various reasons are given below : (a) More than 50% of Adivasis got displaced due to mines and mining projects. (b) Huge tracts of Adivasis’ lands have gone under the waters of hundreds of dams that have been built in independent India. (c) In the N orth-east, thei r l ands remain highly militarised and wartorn. (d) India has 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries covering 1,09, 652 sq km. These are areas where tribals originally lived but were evicted from.
Q.4. What happened to Adivasis when they lost access to their traditional homelands ? [V. Imp.]
Ans. After Adivasis lost access to their traditional homelands, i.e. forests, they became pampers. They faced the problems of livelihood and food. Hence, they migrated to cities in search of work. They got employment there but against very low wages. This made their life miserable. They caught in a cycle of poverty and deprivation 45% of tribal groups in rural areas and 35% in urban areas live below the poverty line. Their children, became malnourished in dearth of adequate food.
Q.5. Why are Muslims considered to be a margoinalised community in India?
Ans. Muslims are considered to be a marginalised community in India because in comparison to other communities, they have always been deprived of the benefits of socioeconomic development. Most of the Muslims do not avail even basic amenities of life such as water and electricity. They live in kutcha houses. They have little access to education and public employment. Thus, they always lag behind in terms of various development indicators.
Their customs and practices are sometimes quite distinct from what is seen as the mainstream. Some-not - all-Muslims may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez and these become ways to identify all Muslims. All these lead to their marginalisation.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Describe marginalisation in context of the Adivasi and Muslim communities.
The life of Adivasis is very much associated with the forests. About 8% of India’s population is Adivasi and many of India’s most important mining and industrial centres are located in Adivasi areas such as Jharkhand, Rourkela, etc. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in our country. They have their own life style. They are usually seen in colourful costumes, and headgear. They can also be identified through their dancing. In the pre-colonial world, Advasis were traditionally ranged hunter-gatherers and nomads and lived by shifting agriculture. Although these remain, for the past 200 years Adivasis have been increasingly forced to migrate to work in plantations, at construction sites, in industries and as domestic .[V. Imp.]
Ans. Adivasi Community: In the precolonial period, Adivasis ruled the forest areas. They were huntergatherers and nomads living by shifting agriculture and also cultivating in one place. But as the development and urbanisation took place, forests were cleared off. This affected the life of Adivasis badly. They had to migrate to cities in search of work. They also lost their power. They were now marginalised. Now they had to work in plantations, at construction sites, in industries and as domestic workers. They had no longer direct access to the forest territories. They lost their domain, and were compelled to lead a very miserable life in the cities. Their children are malnourished. They have little access to education. 45% of tribal in rural areas and 35% in urban areas are bound to live below poverty line.
Muslim Community: Muslims are considered to be a marginalised community in India today because in comparison to other communities, they have always been deprived of the benefits of socio-economic development. Most of the Muslims do not avail basic amenities like water and electricity. They are bound to live in kutcha houses. There is little education among them. They have little access to public employment.
Other factors that make them marginalised are their customs and practices. Some-not-all-Muslims may wear a burqa, sport a long beard, wear a fez and these become way to identify all Muslims. Because of this, they tend to be identified differently. Often this becomes an excuse to treat them unfairly and discriminate against them.