Q.1. Fill in the Blanks:
(i) ______ and ______ mainly provide energy to our body.
Ans. Carbohydrates, fats
(ii) A ______ can prevent deficiency disease.
Ans. balanced diet
(iii) Too much fat in the diet may lead to ______.
(iv) ______ helps our body to absorb nutrients from food.
(v) ______ gets easily destroyed by heat during cooking.
Ans. Vitamin C
(vi) ______ helps in clotting of blood.
Ans. Vitamin K
(vii) Deficiency of Vitamin D causes ______.
(viii) Deficiency of vitamin-C causes ______.
(ix) ______ makes up about 70% of our body weight.
(x) Cooking in too much water destroys ______ in food.
Q.2. State True or False:
(i) Milk does not provide dietary fibre.
(ii) Fats provide less energy as compared to the same amount of carbohydrates.
(iii) Lacks of nutrients in our diet over a long period cause deficiency diseases.
(iv) Rice and potato are rich in protein.
(v) Egg is a rich source of protein, phosphorous and vitamin D.
(vi) Peas, gram, soya beans and cottage cheese are good source of proteins.
(vii) A food item may contain more than one nutrient.
Q.3. Which vitamin is not present in milk?
Ans. Vitamin C.
Q.4. Write the deficiency disease that causes bleeding gums.
Q.5. Write the deficiency disease that is caused by deficiency of iron in the diet.
Q.6. What is the vitamin that represents a group of other vitamins?
Ans. Vitamin B complex.
Q.7. What is obesity?
Ans. Obesity is the condition of excess body weight due to accumulation of fat in the body.
Q.8. Why do we need carbohydrates in our diet?
Ans. We need carbohydrates in our diet as it provides energy to the body.
Q.9. Why do children need more protein in their diet?
Ans. Proteins are needed for the growth and repair of our body. So, children need more protein to support their growth and development of the body.
Q.10. Dia prepared lady fingers that taste yummy. She washed the lady finger after she cut them in small pieces and then fried them in excess oil with lots of spices to make it crunchy and tasty. Was her method of cooking correct?
Ans. No, her method of cooking would result in loss of nutrients. She should have washed the lady fingers before cutting and should have cooked in less oil.
Q.11. What is night blindness? Write its symptoms.
Ans. Night blindness causes difficulty in vision. The person suffering from night blindness cannot see clearly in dim lights.
Q.12. A child has stunted growth, swelling on face, discoloration of hair and skin disease.He was advised to eat protein rich diet. Name the disease, the child is suffering from?
Q.13. How can we test presence of fat in food items?
Ans. Rub a small quantity of food item on a piece of white paper. Oily patch on the piece of white paper indicates that the food items contain fat.
Q.14. How diseases are caused?
Ans. Main causes of diseases are:-
(b) Lack of specific nutrients in the diet.
(c) Contact with the sick person.
Q.15. Write the steps to test the presence of protein in a food item.
Ans. Steps are:
(a) Make a paste or powder of the food item to be tested.
(b) Put some of these in test tube and add 10 drops of water to it. Shake the test tube.
(c) Add 2 drops of solution of copper sulphate and 10 drops of solution of caustic soda to the test tube.
(d) Shake the test tube and observe the color. A violet color indicates presence of proteins in the food item.
Q.16. What is a balanced diet? Is it same for everyone?
Ans. A balanced diet is a diet that consists of variety of different types of food which provides all the nutrients in adequate amount for the proper functioning of the body. Balanced diet is not same for everyone as it depends on age, gender and occupation of a person.
Q.17. How can we cure anaemia?
Ans. To treat anaemia we should eat iron rich food such as red meat, beans, dark green leafy vegetables (such as spinach), raisins, apple, tomatoes, plums, bananas, lemons, grapes, figs, carrots etc.
Q.18. On adding 2-3 drops of dilute iodine solution in a food item, it turns blue black. What does it indicate?
Ans. It indicates that it contains starch.
Q.19. Why sunlight is important for our health?
Ans. Sunlight helps our body to make vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential for bones blood cells and immune system hence sunlight exposure is essential for our health.
Q.20. Differentiate between Marasmus and Kwashiorkor.
1. It occurs due to deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the diet.
It is primarily caused due to insufficient intake of proteins.
2. It occurs in children below the age of 1 year.
It occurs in children in the age group 1-5 years.
3. Body is reduced to skin and bones.
Body swells due to retention of fluids.
4. Skin color does not change.
Skin color changes.
Q.21. What is obesity?
Ans. When a person eats too much fat containing food, then the fat gets deposited in his body and he may end up suffering from a condition called obesity.