Q.1. What kind of climate is found in India?
Q.2. Which is the most remarkable feature of the cold weather season over northern plains?
- The most remarkable feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and northwest.
- The low pressure systems originate over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia moving in India along with the westerly flow.
- They causes the much needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
- Though the total amount of winter rainfall in known as ‘mahawat, it is very helpful for the cultivation of Rabi crops.
Q.3. What ideas justify that how temperature varies from place to place and season to season in our country?
- The variation of temperature occasionally touches 50°C in some part of Rajasthan Desert.
- It reaches around 20°C in Pahalagam in Jammu and Kashmir.
- On winter night’s temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as -45°C.
- On the other hand, Trivavathapuram may touch the temperature of 22°C.
- The coastal areas experiences less contrasts in temperature conditions. There are many seasonal contrasts existing in the interior of the country.
Q.4. In which state houses are built on stilts?
Q.5. Will you interpret the climatic conditions, as the monsoon retreat?
(i) The temperature rises and sky becomes clearer as the monsoon retreat.
(ii) The days are warmer while the nights are cooler and pleasant.
(iii) The land is still moist.
(iv) The weather becomes oppressive during the day owing to the conditions of hightemperature and humidity.
Q.6. Which parts of India receive heavy rainfall, moderate rainfall, low rainfall and scanty rainfall?
Areas of Heavy Rainfall: Assam, the Ganga Delta, the Western Ghats, Western Coastal areas and Mountainous regions of Himachal etc receives high rainfall.
Areas of Moderate Rainfall: Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhotanagpur Plateau, West Bengal, Bihar, Eastern UP, North-eastern Punjab, eastern parts of Tamil Nadu and Eastern slopes of Western Ghats.
Areas of low rainfall: The Deccan Plateau, western UP, South-eastern parts of Punjab, Eastern Rajasthan and some part of Kashmir.
Areas of Scanty Rainfall: Western Rajasthan, Kachchh, South-eastern parts Haryana and north-eastern Kashmir.
Q.7. What is extreme climate?
It means very hot during summers and very cold during winters.
Q.8. What does the word ‘Monsoon’ imply?
(i) The word ‘monsoon’ is derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’ which literally means season.
(ii) Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.
(iii) The climate of India is the monsoon type.
(iv) Such type of climate is found mainly in the south and Southeast Asia.
Q.9. How do Jet Streams influence the climate of India?
- The westerly flow dominates the upper air circulation. These Jet Streams are known as Subtropical westerly Jet Streams.
- Jet streams are located approximately over 27°-30° North latitude.
- These Jet streams blow south of the Himalayas’ over India throughout the year except in summer.
- The north and Northwest parts of the country experience the western cyclonic disturbances which are brought in by this westerly flow.
- In summer the subtropical westerly Jet streams moves north of the Himalayas with the apparent movement of the sun.
- The tropical easterly Jet Streams flows over peninsular India, approximately over 14° north during the summer months.
Q.10. From where the western cyclonic disturbance originate in winter?
from the Mediterranean Sea.
Q.11. What are the factors which affect the climate of an area?
(iii) Pressure and wind system
(iv) Distance from the sea
(v) Ocean currents
(vi) Relief features.
Q.12. Evaluate spread of monsoon over the Indian sub-continent from Kerala to Jammu and Kashmir.
- The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by the first week of June.
- Subsequently, it proceeds into two branches, Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
- The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later on approximately the 10th of June. The Bay of Bengal Branch also arrives in Assam in the first week of June.
- By mid June the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Saurashtra, kuchchh and the central part of the country.
- The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal branches of the monsoon merge over the north western part of the Ganga plains.
- By the first week of July, western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Eastern Rajasthan experience the monsoon
Q.13. What is Southern Oscillation?
It is a periodic change in pressure conditions.
Q.14. How does the latitude affect the climate of an area?
- India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climate due to the tropic of cancer which passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east.
- Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer belongs to the Tropical area.
- All the remaining area, north of tropic lies in the sub-tropics.
Q.15. What are the features of hot weather season in India?
- There is hot weather season from March to May in India.
- The temperature recording taken during march- May at different latitudes clearly shows the influence of the shifting of the heat belt.
- The Highest temperature is about 30° C in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in April. In May, the temperature commonly reaches at 45° C in the north western parts of the country.
- Due to the moderating influence of the oceans, the temperature remains lower in peninsular India.
- The Temperature rises and air pressure falls in the northern part of the country during summer month.
- At the end of May, an elongated low pressure area develops in the region extending from the Thar Desert in the north-west to Patna and Chota Nagpur plateau in the east and south-east.
- ‘Loo’ is the most striking feature of the hot weather season
Q.16. What is the weather conditions of an area for a long period of time called?
Q.17. India lies in which climatic region? Explain.
- There are many climatic regions in the world.
- India’s climate has characterized of Tropical as well as subtropical climates due to the tropic of cancer.
- This passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kachchh in the west to Mizoram in the east.
- Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area lying north of the tropic of cancer belongs to the sub tropical area.
Q.18. How far it is correct to say that both the pressure and the wind conditions over India are unique? What information would you use to support your answer?
Both the pressure and wind conditions over India are unique. The North of Himalayas has high pressure during winter season. Cold dry winds blow towards the low pressure areas over the oceans to the south. The low pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over northwestern India in summer season. This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer. Air blows from the high-pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean which crosses the equator in the south-easterly direction. It turns right towards the low pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These winds are called the southern monsoon winds. These winds blow over the warm oceans gathering moisture and bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India
Q.19. Give two examples of precipitation.
Rain and Snowfall.
Q.20. “Transition period from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions linked with the occurrence of cyclonic depression over Andaman Sea.” Explain.
The October –November months form a transition period from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. The temperature rises and sky become clear as the monsoon retreat. By early November the conditions of the low pressure over north western India get transformed to the Bay of Bengal. This shift is linked with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions which originate over Andaman Sea. These cyclones cause heavy and wide spread rain crossing the eastern coasts of India. Sometimes these tropical cyclones caused destruction.