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Q.1. Fill in the blanks.
(i) Sarnath, near Varanasi, where Buddha taught for the first time.
(ii) The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
(iii) Upanishadic thinkers believed that the atman and brahman were ultimately one.
(iv) The Vinaya Pitaka is a Buddhist scripture.
(v) Vardhamana Mahavira was a Kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis.
(vi) The Buddha belonged to a small gana known as the Sakya gana.
(vii) The Prakrit spoken in Magadha was known as Magadhi.
Q.2. Who prepared grammar for Sanskrit?
Panini prepared grammar for Sanskrit.
Q.3. Where does the word Jaina come from?
The word Jaina comes from the term Jina, Meaning conqueror.
Q.4. Why Buddha left the comforts of his home?
He left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge.
Q.5. Where Buddha died?
Gautama Buddha died in the city of Kusinara (present day Kushinagar).
Q.6. Who was Zoroaster?
Zoroaster was an Iranian prophet.
Q.7. What was Lord Buddha’s birth name?
His birth name was Siddhartha Gautama.
Q.8. Name the famous thinker who developed the ideas of the Upanishads.
Many of the ideas of the Upanishads were later developed by the famous thinker Shankaracharya.
Q.9. The teaching of Buddhism and Jainism were propagated in which language?
The teaching of Buddhism and Jainism were propagated in Prakrit language.
Q.10. Explain „Sangha‟.
The word “Sangha” literally means a community that joins and lives together.
Q.11. Who were Jainas?
Followers of Mahavira were known as Jainas.
Q.12. Where is Karle cave?
This is a cave in Karle, present-day Maharashtra.
Q.13. Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism.
Q.14. Who accepted Satyakama as a student?
He was accepted as a student by a brahmin teacher named Gautama.
Q.15. Where did Siddhartha attain enlightenment?
Siddhartha attained enlightenment under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar.
Q.16. How did Mahavira attain enlightenment?
For twelve years Mahavira led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.
Q.17. Who could join the Sangha?
Brahmins, kshatriyas, merchants, labourers, barbers, courtesans and slaves could join the sangha.
Q.18. What are the four ashramas?
Four ashramas were recognised: brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha and samnyasa.
Q.19. What is Avesta?
Teachings of Zoroaster are contained in a book called the Avesta.
Q.20. State True (T) or false (F).
(i) Gargi was the woman Upanishadic thinker who was famous for her learning. True
(ii) Buddha taught people to be kind, and to respect the lives of others, including animals. True
(iii) Buddha believed that karma do not affect our life. False
(iv) The individual soul is referred to as Brahman. False
(v) The Buddha described cravings and desires as thirst or tanha. True
(vi) Satyakama Jabala, who was named after his mother, the Brahmin woman Jabali. False