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Worksheet Solutions: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes | Sociology Class 11 - Humanities/Arts PDF Download

Fill in the Blanks

Q1: Social structure refers to the general organization or ______ of society.
Ans: structure
Social structure pertains to the overall framework or organization of society.

Q2: Social stratification involves systematic inequalities in access to ______ and ______ rewards.
Ans: physical and symbolic
Social stratification refers to inequalities in access to both tangible (physical) and intangible (symbolic) rewards.

Q3: Social stratification serves to meet the needs of different strata, as no one can fulfill all their demands ______.
Ans: individually
Social stratification exists to distribute resources and responsibilities among different strata since individuals cannot fulfill all their needs independently.

Q4: Social processes refer to the various actions individuals undertake while operating within the confines of a particular ______.
Ans: social organization
Social processes involve the actions individuals take within a specific social structure or organization.

Q5: Cooperation is based on several assumptions about human behavior, and its nature is both ______ and ______.
Ans: voluntary, reciprocal
Cooperation is driven by assumptions about human behavior and is considered selfless, benefiting both individuals psychologically and socially.

Q6: Conflict arises from groups competing for access to ______ resources and control over them within society.
Ans: scarce
Conflict stems from groups vying for limited (scarce) resources and power within society.

Q7: Accommodation seeks to prevent, reduce, or eliminate ______.
Ans: conflict
Accommodation aims to minimize or eliminate conflict within social interactions.

Q8: Organic solidarity is based on increasing ______ and division of labor, leading to interdependence.
Ans: interdependence
Organic solidarity relies on growing interdependence and the division of labor, resulting in individuals depending on each other.

Q9: Competition is a ubiquitous and organic social process found in every ______ society.
Ans: human
Competition is a natural and widespread social process observed in all human societies.

Q10: Hidden conflict and open cooperation are common coping mechanisms employed by marginalized groups like women or peasants to deal with conflict and promote ______.
Ans: collaboration
Marginalized groups often use hidden conflict and open cooperation as strategies to manage conflict and foster collaboration.

Assertion and Reason Based

Q1: Assertion: Social structure is independent of individual actions.
Reason: Emile Durkheim believed that society has a solidity similar to physical structures.
(a) Both assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are true, but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but the reason is false.
(d) Both assertion and reason are false.

Ans: (b)
While the assertion is true, Durkheim's belief does not necessarily imply that social structure is independent of individual actions. It highlights the solidity of society but does not negate the influence of individual actions on social structure.

Q2: Assertion: Social stratification is randomly spread among people in society.
Reason: Inequality within social stratification is systematically linked to participation in various social groups.

(a) Both assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are true, but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but the reason is false.
(d) Both assertion and reason are false.

Ans: (a)
The assertion is true, and the reason explains why social stratification is not randomly spread; it is systematically linked to group participation.

Q3: Assertion: Cooperation is a selfless process.
Reason: Competition is primarily driven by personal ambitions.

(a) Both assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are true, but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but the reason is false.
(d) Both assertion and reason are false.

Ans: (c)
While cooperation can be selfless, competition being primarily driven by personal ambitions is not necessarily true. Competition can also have broader societal and economic motivations.

Q4: Assertion: Accommodation and assimilation are the same processes.
Reason: Both involve reducing conflict and promoting social harmony.

(a) Both assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are true, but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but the reason is false.
(d) Both assertion and reason are false.

Ans: (d)
While both accommodation and assimilation aim to reduce conflict and promote harmony, they are not the same processes. Accommodation is a broader concept that includes various strategies for managing conflict, while assimilation is a specific form of accommodation.

Q5: Assertion: Competition is a widely accepted belief, social norm, and behavior in all societies.
Reason: Competition serves as a driving force in modern capitalism.

(a) Both assertion and reason are true, and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both assertion and reason are true, but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) Assertion is true, but the reason is false.
(d) Both assertion and reason are false.

Ans: (a)
The assertion is true, and the reason explains why competition is a widely accepted belief, norm, and behavior in modern capitalist societies.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: What does social structure refer to?
Ans: Social structure refers to the patterned relationships and institutions that organize and shape social interactions within a society.

Q2: What is the connection between social reproduction and social structure?
Ans: Social reproduction refers to the processes through which social inequalities and structures are passed on from one generation to the next. It is closely linked to social structure as social structures, such as social classes, shape the opportunities and constraints individuals face in reproducing social inequalities.

Q3: Name two social theorists mentioned in the text regarding social structure and agency.
Ans: Two social theorists mentioned in the text regarding social structure and agency are Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim.

Q4: What is social stratification, and how is it related to social classes?
Ans: Social stratification refers to the division of society into different strata or layers based on factors such as wealth, power, and social status. Social classes are one form of social stratification, representing distinct groups of people who share similar economic and social positions within a society.

Q5: Give an example of a social process discussed in the text.
Ans: An example of a social process discussed in the text is socialization, which refers to the process through which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, and behaviors of their society.

Q6: What are the key elements explaining cooperation and conflict in human behavior?
Ans: The key elements explaining cooperation and conflict in human behavior include social norms, power dynamics, resource distribution, and cultural beliefs.

Q7: What is the primary goal of contemporary capitalism, as observed by Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim?
Ans: The primary goal of contemporary capitalism, as observed by Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim, is the maximization of profit and economic efficiency.

Q8: Explain the concept of organic solidarity.
Ans: Organic solidarity is a concept introduced by Emile Durkheim, referring to the social cohesion and interdependence that arises from the differentiation and specialization of roles and occupations in complex societies.

Q9: What is the primary belief system in capitalism?
Ans: The primary belief system in capitalism is the ideology of individualism and the pursuit of self-interest, where individuals are motivated by personal gain and competition.

Q10: How do marginalized groups cope with conflict and promote cooperation?
Ans: Marginalized groups cope with conflict and promote cooperation through various strategies such as collective action, community organizing, and the formation of social movements to challenge systems of oppression and advocate for their rights and interests.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: Describe the dialectical relationship between the individual and society in sociology.
Ans: The dialectical relationship between the individual and society in sociology involves the dynamic interaction between individual actions and societal structures. Individuals hold unique positions in the social structure, which influences their access to resources. Society is shaped by individual actions, and individual actions, in turn, are influenced by societal norms and structures.

Q2: Explain the role of repeated behaviors in social structure, using the example of schools.
Ans: Repeated behaviors in social structure, such as those observed in schools (admissions, dress codes, etc.), influence social reproduction by shaping the structure of social institutions. These patterns can change due to cooperation or conflict.

Q3: Discuss the various factors that contribute to social stratification in contemporary societies.
Ans: Social stratification is the systematic inequality in access to physical and symbolic rewards. In contemporary societies, it's based on class, race, caste, religion, community, tribe, and gender. Inequality within social stratification is systematically linked to participation in various social groups.

Q4: How does social stratification impact the opportunities and resources available to individuals and groups?
Ans: Social stratification impacts opportunities and resources available to individuals and groups. It determines their access to wealth, income, health insurance, job stability, and social status, affecting their life chances and political influence.

Q5: Compare and contrast the conflict and functionalist perspectives on cooperation within society.
Ans: The conflict perspective emphasizes how cooperation differs across historical societies and how production relations can lead to conflict. The functionalist perspective highlights the role of various components in maintaining and operating society.

Q6: Define social processes and provide an example of a social process discussed in the text.
Ans: Social processes refer to actions individuals take within a particular social organization. An example is cooperation, which involves people working together towards a common goal.

Q7: Discuss the concepts of organic and mechanical solidarity and their significance in society.
Ans: Organic solidarity is based on increasing interdependence and the division of labor. It arises in complex, specialized societies where individuals rely on one another for various needs.

Q8: Analyze the role of competition in modern capitalist societies and its impact on individuals and social stratification.
Ans: Competition is a driving force in modern capitalism. It promotes individualism and is based on the belief that individuals compete on equal footing. However, stratification and inequality reveal that people are positioned differently, leading to conflict.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q1: Elaborate on the concept of social accommodation and its relationship with cooperation and assimilation. Provide examples to illustrate these concepts.
Ans: Social accommodation involves strategies to prevent, reduce, or eliminate conflict in social interactions. It is closely related to cooperation and assimilation. Cooperation is the voluntary and equal work of individuals towards a common goal, while assimilation is the adoption of behavioral patterns from others. Accommodation and assimilation are different phases of the cooperative process. Accommodation focuses on minimizing conflict, while assimilation entails individuals adopting each other's behaviors. For example, in a diverse workplace, accommodating different cultural practices can reduce tension, and over time, employees may assimilate some of these practices, promoting harmony.

Q2: Compare and contrast the views of Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim on the role of cooperation and conflict in society. How do their perspectives differ, and what commonalities do they share?
Ans: Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim held different views on cooperation and conflict in society. Marx saw cooperation as a result of class conflict, where it's not voluntary but arises due to economic interests. Workers in a factory might cooperate, but it's driven by the need to earn a living. Durkheim, on the other hand, emphasized the necessity of cooperation to achieve societal goals, with the division of labor serving this purpose. Despite their differences, both recognized that people both cooperate and change society through their interactions, although their motivations and perspectives differed.

Q3: Discuss the significance of competition as a social process in modern capitalism. How does competition relate to social stratification, and what are the consequences of competition on society?
Ans: Competition is a fundamental aspect of modern capitalism. It serves as a driving force for economic growth and individual achievement. Capitalism's ideology promotes competitiveness, with the belief that competition maximizes efficiency. However, this perspective ignores the reality of stratification and inequality in society, where not everyone competes on an equal footing. Hidden conflict and open cooperation are coping mechanisms employed by marginalized groups to deal with conflict and promote collaboration. For example, in the workplace, women may engage in open cooperation by sharing experiences to address discrimination while also facing hidden conflicts when dealing with biased practices.

Q4: Explore the complex relationship between cooperation and conflict. Provide examples from different societies to demonstrate how these processes can coexist and their implications for social dynamics.
Ans:
Cooperation and conflict are complex social processes. Conflict often arises from competition for limited resources, while cooperation is essential for human society's survival. These processes can coexist and may even be necessary for each other. Forced cooperation might result from intense social strife, such as the case of daughters' property rights in Indian society. Asking for those rights may be seen as greedy (conflict), while giving them up may be viewed as cooperative (cooperation). Therefore, these processes are interrelated and have different implications for social dynamics. Durkheim argued that collaboration is necessary to achieve societal objectives, while Marx believed that people both cooperate and change society through their interactions.

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