Q.1. What do you understand by the term kathak?
The term kathak is derived from katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for story.
Q.2. What are miniatures?
Miniatures are small-sized paintings, generally done in water colour on cloth or paper.
Q.3. Why do you think the second category of texts was not written down?
The second category of texts was not written down because it was circulated orally and cannot be precisely dated.
Q.4. Who were the major patrons of Kathak?
The major patrons of Kathak were the Mughal emperors and their nobles and Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh.
Q.5. Who built Jagannath temple at Puri?
One of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty, Anantavarman built Jagannath temple at Puri in the twelfth century.
Q.6. When was the Chera Kingdom established?
The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in the south-western part of the peninsula, part of present-day Kerala.
Q.7. What is called rasa lila?
The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers.
Q.8. What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.
Manipravalam was a literally style referring to the two languages, Sanskrit and the regional language. The Lilatilakam, dealing with grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam.
Q.9. How did the Cheras draw upon Sanskritic traditions?
At the same time, the Cheras also drew upon Sanskritic traditions. The temple theatre of Kerala, which is traced to this period, borrowed stories from the Sanskrit epics. The first literary works in Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are directly indebted to Sanskrit.
Q.10. How did Kathak reach its present form?
Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court, where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style. Subsequently, it developed in two traditions or gharanas: one in the courts of Rajasthan (Jaipur) and the other in Lucknow.
Q.11. Why were the Bengal Brahmanas allowed to eat fish?
Brahmanas were not allowed to eat nonvegetarian food, but the popularity of fish in the local diet made the Brahmanical authorities relax this prohibition for the Bengal Brahmanas. The Brihaddharma Purana, a thirteenth-century Sanskrit text from Bengal, permitted the local Brahmanas to eat certain varieties of fish.
Q.12. Why did minstrels proclaim the achievements of heroes?
Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by specially trained minstrels. These preserved the memories of heroes and were expected to inspire others to follow their example. Ordinary people were also attracted by these stories – which often depicted dramatic situations, and a range of strong emotions – loyalty, friendship, love, valour, anger, etc.
Q.13. Write a short note on Kathak, a popular classical dance form of north India.
Kathak now associated with several parts of north India. The term kathak is derived from katha, a word used in Sanskrit and other languages for story. The kathaks were originally a caste of story-tellers in temples of north India, who embellished their performances with gestures and songs. Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with the spread of the bhakti movement. The legends of Radha-Krishna were enacted in folk plays called rasa lila, which combined folk dance with the basic gestures of the kathak story-tellers. Under the Mughal emperors and their nobles, Kathak was performed in the court, where it acquired its present features and developed into a form of dance with a distinctive style.
Q.14. What do you know about Rajput tradition of heroism?
Rajputs are often recognised as contributing to the distinctive culture of Rajasthan. These cultural traditions were closely linked with the ideals and aspirations of rulers. From about the eighth century, most of the present-day state of Rajasthan was ruled by various Rajput families. These rulers cherished the ideal of the hero who fought valiantly, often choosing death on the battlefield rather than face defeat. Stories about Rajput heroes were recorded in poems and songs, which were recited by specially trained minstrels.
Q.15. Why were temples built in Bengal?
Bengal witnessed a temple-building spree from the late fifteenth century, which culminated in the nineteenth century. Temples and other religious structures were often built by individuals or groups who were becoming powerful – to both demonstrate their power and proclaim their piety. As social and economic position improved, people proclaimed their status through the construction of temples.