Q.1. Who subjugated the Cheros?
Under Aurangzeb, Mughal forces captured many Chero fortresses and subjugated the tribe.
Q.2. What made the brahmanas more influential in the Gond society?
Brahmanas received land grants from the Gond rajas and became more influential.
Q.3. Why did Mughals attack Ahom kingdom?
In 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla attacked the Ahom kingdom.
Q.4. Who were the most important trader nomads?
The Banjaras were the most important trader nomads.
Q.5. Who was the chief of Gakkhar tribe?
Kamal Khan Gakkhar was the chief of Gakkhar tribe.
Q.6. Where does the Kutiya Kond tribe live?
Kutiya Kond tribe lives in Orissa.
Q.7. Explain the term 'khel' in reference to Ahom society.
Ahom society was divided into clans or khels. There were very few castes of artisans, so artisans in the Ahom areas came from the adjoining kingdoms. A khel often controlled several villages. The peasant was given land by his village community. Even the king could not take it away without the community’s consent.
Q.8. Who were Gonds?
The Gonds lived in a vast forested region called Gondwana – or “country inhabited by Gonds”. They practised shifting cultivation. The Gonds were found in great numbers across the present-day states of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
Q.9. What is 'shifting cultivation'?
Trees and bushes in a forest area are first cut and burnt. The crop is sown in the ashes. When this land loses its fertility, another plot of land is cleared and planted in the same way.
Q.10. What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists?
Nomadic pastoralists exchanged wool, ghee, etc., with settled agriculturists for grain, cloth, utensils and other products.
Q.11. Which was the most influential tribe in Punjab during 13th and 14th century?
In Punjab, the Khokhar tribe was very influential during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Q.12. Who was Rani Durgawati?
Durgawati was the daughter of Salbahan, the Chandel Rajput raja of Mahoba. She got married to Dalpat, the son of Gond raja Aman Das.
Q.13. What did Mughal capture when they defeat the Gonds?
When the Mughals defeated the Gonds, they captured a huge booty of precious coins and elephants.
Q.14. Who was Raja Man Singh?
Raja Man Singh was Akbar’s famous general who attacked and defeated the Cheros in 1591.
Q.15. How did the tribes earn their livelihood?
Many tribes obtained their livelihood from agriculture. Others were hunter-gatherers or herders. Most often they combined these activities to make full use of the natural resources of the area in which they lived. Some tribes were nomadic and moved from one place to another. A tribal group controlled land and pastures jointly, and divided these amongst households according to its own rules.
|1. Who were the tribes, nomads, and settled communities?|
|2. What are the characteristics of tribes?|
|3. How did nomads survive without a fixed settlement?|
|4. What were the advantages of settled communities over tribes and nomads?|
|5. How did the lifestyle of tribes, nomads, and settled communities change over time?|