Q.1. Pushkar is famous for what?
Q.2. Name the nomad communities of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas.
Q.3. Name the crop which is generally harvested in March April months.
Rabi Crops- Mustard and wheat.
Q.4. Where does Dhangar shephered live in Maharashtra?
Q.5. What are the vast meadows in the high mountain called?
Q.6. What were the instructions given to the police to check the movement of pastoralists in colonial Africa?
The police were given instruction to keep a watch on the movements of pastoralists,and prevent them from entering white areas. Passes to enter the Territory should not be given to these natives unless exceptional circumstances necessitate their entering.Ordinary visiting passes should not be given to the locals.
Q.7. What are Reserved Forests and Protected Forests?
Reserved Forests: The forests which produced commercially valuable timber likeDeodar or Sal. No pastoralist was allowed to access these forests.
Protected Forests: In these forests some customary grazing rights of pastoralists weregranted but their movements were strictly restricted.
Q.8. Which conditions are responsible for the death of pastoral animals in the semi-arid regions of South Africa?
High temperature combines with low rainfall. It creates conditions which are dry and extremely hot. Drought conditions are common in this semi arid land of equatorial heat.
During such times pastoral animals die in large numbers
Q.9. How did the Grazing Tax change the lives of pastoralists?
The British tried to discourage Nomads tribes in all possible ways.
Grazing Tax was one such measure adopted by the colonial power.
They wanted to increase revenue income. So Grazing Tax was imposed on many items including grazing land.
The Tax on grazing land was step to discourage Nomadism.
Pastoral tribes had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures
Q.10. How the pastorals have survived in the modern times?
Their grazing lands were disappeared. Their number of cattle was reduced but still they have adapted themselves in newsituations. They have changed the path of their cyclical movement as Raikas have done in India. Now come to Haryana instead of Sind.
Q.11. How did drought affect the pastoralists in Africa?
Droughts made a severe effect on the pastoral tribes.
When rain is less and pastures are dry, pastorals move to new grazing lands but thecolonial powers restricted their movement to a small area.
They were forced to live in the semi-arid areas.
During the drought period, a large number of cattle used to die due to starvation anddisease.
Q.12. What are factors that affect the pastoral movement in plains?
There are many factors which affect the pastoral movement in plains.
Their movement is not like the mountain nomad pastoralists.
They move according to the time of advancing monsoon and retreating monsoon.
In the dry season they move towards the main area and return back at the arrival of monsoon.
Q.13. Explain the Taxation Policy imposed by colonial government upon the pastoralists to expand their revenue income.
To expand its revenue income, the colonial government looked for every possiblesource of taxation.
Taxes were imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods and even on animals.
Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures.
In most pastoral tracts of India, grazing tax was introduced in the mid-nineteenth century.
The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient.
In the decades between the 1850s and 1880s the right to collect the tax was auctioned out to contractors.
Q.14. Explain the annual movement of Dhangars.
Dhangars move from central plateau of Maharashtra during the months-October and November.
Due to the shortage of fodder, they move to konkan which is flourished agricultural tracts with high rainfall.
The Konkani peasants welcome them as their field had to be fertilized and made ready for the Rabi crops.
The flocks of Dhangars manure the fields and feed on the stubble.
With the onset of the monsoon the Dhangars leave the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and return to their settlements on the dry plateau.
This is because sheep cannot tolerate the wet monsoon conditions.
Q.15. How did the reserves affect the Movement of Massai Community?
Massai groups were forced to live in the confines of special reserves.
The boundaries of these reserves became the limits with which they could now move.
They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special passes.
It was very difficult to get permits without trouble and harassment.
Those who found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished.