1. What is Extensible Markup Language (XML).
XML is a simple and flexible markup language in the text format. Nowadays, it is widely used to exchange a large variety of data over the Internet. XML consists of data as text in well-defined customized layouts by using self-defining tags. These user-defined tags are user friendly because they contain the name given by the user and make the information easily understandable to a user. These user-friendly features made XML to be widely used as a standard data-interchange format. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) frequently develops new standard for XML usage by different software vendors and solution providers. XML plays a very significant role with respect to .NET Framework 4.0. .NET Framework 4.0 provides us with a namespace called System.Xml, which includes classes that are used to work with XML.
2. What is the version information in XML?
"Version" tag shows which version of XML is used.
3. If XML does not have closing tag will it work?
No, every tag in XML, which is opened, should have a closing tag.
4. Is XML case sensitive?
Yes, XML is case sensitive.
5. Explain the difference between XML and HTML.
6. What is XML DOM?
7. Which namespaces in .NET are used for XML?
The System.xml.dll is the real physical file, which contains the XML implementation. Some of the other namespaces that allow .NET to use XML are as follows:
8. Explain different types of XML Application Programming Interface (API).
The following are two main types of XML parsers:
9. Explain the XmlReader class.
The XmlReader class is used to read XML data in a fast, forward-only, and non-cached manner.
To work with XmlReader class in .NET, you need to import the following namespace:
10. Describe the XmlWriter class.
The XmlWriter class is used to write XML to a stream, a file, or a Textwriter object. This class works in a forward-only, non-cached manner. You can configure the XmlWriter object up to a large extent. With this object, you can specify a few things, such as whether to indent content or not, the amount to indent, what quote character to use in attribute values, and whether or not namespaces are supported.
11. What is XPath?
XPath stands for XML Path. It is a language used to access different parts of an XML document, such as elements and attributes.
12. What is an XML attribute?
An XML attribute contains additional information regarding that particular element. The XML attributes use the name-value pair. For example, the element student has an attribute called id and the value of this attribute is set to s01, as shown in the following code snippet:
13. The XML elements cannot be empty. Is it true?
No, it is not true.
14. Describe the role that XSL can play while dynamically generating HTML pages from a relational database.
The SQLXML 3.0 and advanced versions provide the facility of mapping the SQL queries output with XSLT templates. It uses XSLT to present the records that are retrieved from databases on Web pages (HTML pages).
An application can use XSLT to modify the output that is retrieved from data sources and display the output by XSL templates. The XSLT displays data without affecting the database query and the code of application.
15. What are the advantages of DOM?
The following are the advantages of DOM:
16. Give an example of a DOM-enabled XML parser.
The XML parser is MSXML, which is fully DOM-enabled.
17. What is an XML schema?
An XML schema provides the definition of an XML document. This implies that an XML schema defines the following in an XML document:
18. State the advantages of XML schemas over DTD.
Microsoft developed a language known as the XML Schema Definition (XSD) to describe the schema to an XML document. The following are the advantages of XML schemas over DTDs:
19. Using XSLT, how would you extract the value of a specific attribute from an element in an XML document?
The components necessary for the above mentioned operation are as follows:
20. Which classes are supported to make an XML DOM?
The following are the different classes in the System.Xml namespace that make up the XML DOM:
21. Which class is used to encode and decode XML names and contains different methods to convert between CLR types and XSD types.
The XmlConvert Class.
22. What is the DTD?
The DTD is Document Type Definition that describes the formation of the content of an XML document. The DTD manages the data to store in a consistent format. It defines the XML elements and attributes about how they should be present in XML documents and what relation they should have with other elements and attributes. The DTD also allows you to mention whether an XML element is optional or not. If the XML documents are not according to the DTD rules, they are not considered valid.
23. Is it true that the XML's goal is to replace HTML?
No, it is not true. Both are necessary in their respective fields.
24. What is XSLT?
XSLT is Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations that is a part of XML, which is a mechanism to transform an XML document into another XML or HTML document.
25. Describe the rules and regulations that must be followed while creating a well-formed XML document.
The following are the rules and regulations that are necessary to follow while creating a well-formed XML document:
26. What are the naming conventions required for XML elements tags?
The following are the naming conventions that need to be followed for XML elements tags:
27. The XML preserves white spaces. Is it true?
Yes, it is true.
28. Explain the XML elements.
The elements are the central units of an XML document that explain and identify data. The elements are represented by the tags. You can also make your own tags, which make XML a user-friendly language. By creating custom meaningful elements, you can improve readability of the document. XML elements can be nested and the nested elements are known as child elements.