Control and coordination Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Class 10 : Control and coordination Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


46 
 
CHAPTER 7 – CONTROL & COORDINATION 
 
KEY CONCEPTS & GIST OF THE LESSON 
 
? Coordination-The working together of various organs of the body of an organism in a proper 
manner to produce appropriate reaction to a stimulus is called coordination. 
 
? Stimulus- The changes in the environment to which an organism responds and reacts is called 
Stimulus 
 
? Control & coordination in animals- takes place by (i) Nervous system & (ii) Endocrine system 
 
? Nervous system 
                    Stimulus ?  Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Brain/Spinal cord 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                              Response  ? Effector organ   ?    Motor nerve  
 
?  Endocrine system 
                     Stimulus ?  Endocrine organ ?  Secrete hormone  ? Hormone in blood 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                                                          Response  ?    Target organ  
? Parts of the Nervous system – (i)  Brain  (ii) Spinal cord  (iii) Nerves (Neurons) 
 
? A Neuron is the structural & functional unit of Nervous system 
 
? Parts of a neuron- (i)  Dendrites  (ii)  Cell body  (iii) Axon 
 
? Synapse- Space/junction between two adjacent nerves is called Synapse. 
 
? Passing of information takes place –(i) By Electric impulse (inside the neuron) and                                   
(ii) In the form of chemicals (At synapse) 
 
? Reflex action- Spontaneous, involuntary and automatic response to a stimulus to protect us 
from harmful situations. Eg. On touching a hot object unknowingly we instantly withdraw our 
hand. 
 
? Reflex arc- The pathway of the reflex action is called Reflex arc. 
          Stimulus ? Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Spinal cord ??Effector organ?  Response  
         Refer to figure 7.2 page no. 117 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
? Nervous system- (1)  Central Nervous system (CNS)           (2) Peripheral Nervous system 
(PNS) 
                                                (i)  Brain                                                   (i)  Autonomic Nervous system 
                                                (ii)  Spinal cord                                          (ii)  Voluntary Nervous system 
 
? Brain  (i)  Centre of coordination of all activities (ii)  Thinking is involved (iii) Complex 
process 
? Parts of brain-       Refer to figure 7.3 page no. 118 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book 
 
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Page 2


46 
 
CHAPTER 7 – CONTROL & COORDINATION 
 
KEY CONCEPTS & GIST OF THE LESSON 
 
? Coordination-The working together of various organs of the body of an organism in a proper 
manner to produce appropriate reaction to a stimulus is called coordination. 
 
? Stimulus- The changes in the environment to which an organism responds and reacts is called 
Stimulus 
 
? Control & coordination in animals- takes place by (i) Nervous system & (ii) Endocrine system 
 
? Nervous system 
                    Stimulus ?  Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Brain/Spinal cord 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                              Response  ? Effector organ   ?    Motor nerve  
 
?  Endocrine system 
                     Stimulus ?  Endocrine organ ?  Secrete hormone  ? Hormone in blood 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                                                          Response  ?    Target organ  
? Parts of the Nervous system – (i)  Brain  (ii) Spinal cord  (iii) Nerves (Neurons) 
 
? A Neuron is the structural & functional unit of Nervous system 
 
? Parts of a neuron- (i)  Dendrites  (ii)  Cell body  (iii) Axon 
 
? Synapse- Space/junction between two adjacent nerves is called Synapse. 
 
? Passing of information takes place –(i) By Electric impulse (inside the neuron) and                                   
(ii) In the form of chemicals (At synapse) 
 
? Reflex action- Spontaneous, involuntary and automatic response to a stimulus to protect us 
from harmful situations. Eg. On touching a hot object unknowingly we instantly withdraw our 
hand. 
 
? Reflex arc- The pathway of the reflex action is called Reflex arc. 
          Stimulus ? Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Spinal cord ??Effector organ?  Response  
         Refer to figure 7.2 page no. 117 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
? Nervous system- (1)  Central Nervous system (CNS)           (2) Peripheral Nervous system 
(PNS) 
                                                (i)  Brain                                                   (i)  Autonomic Nervous system 
                                                (ii)  Spinal cord                                          (ii)  Voluntary Nervous system 
 
? Brain  (i)  Centre of coordination of all activities (ii)  Thinking is involved (iii) Complex 
process 
? Parts of brain-       Refer to figure 7.3 page no. 118 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book 
 
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47 
 
    Fore brain                             Mid brain                       Hind brain 
                                       
(i) Cerebrum                                                                                                                
 (ii)  Thalamus                                                                                                     
(iii)  Hypothallamus                                                         
 
            ---------- 
                                                                                                         
(i) Cerebellum                                                                                                          
(ii) Pons                                                       
(iii)  Medulla oblongata                                                      
 
? Fore brain 
       Cerebrum- (i)  Main thinking and largest part of the brain. 
                         (ii)  It has 3 main areas-  
a. Sensory area- to receive impulses from sense organs via 
Receptors 
b. Motor area- control voluntary movements. 
c. Association areas- Reasoning, learning & intelligence. 
      Thalamus – It relays sensory information to the Cerebrum 
      Hypothallamus- It forms the link between Nervous system & Endocrine system 
 
? Mid brain- It connects Fore brain and Hind brain. Controls reflex of eyes & ears 
 
? Hind brain- Connects the Fore brain & Hind brain 
             Cerebellum – Controls & coordinates muscular movements, maintaining body posture and 
equilibrium.   
             Pons- Acts as a bridge between brain & spinal cord   
             Medulla oblongata- Controls involuntary actions like blood pressure, salivation, vomiting, etc. 
 
? Spinal cord- Cylindrical or tubular structure extending downwards from the Medulla 
oblongata.  
 
? Protection of the brain & the spinal cord-                                                                                                   
(i) Bony outer covering: skull for the brain & vertebral column for the spinal cord.  
(ii)  Cerebrospinal fluid present in between the three membranes. 
 
? Action caused by  Nervous tissue                                                                                                    
Information  ? Nervous tissue ?  Brain Muscles ? Causes action 
? Path or action-                                                                                                                                           
Nerve impulse  ?  Muscle cell  ?  Changes shape  due to special proteins   
                                                                                                 ?                        
                Action caused   ? Shorter form of muscles ? Change shape & arrangement of cell     
? Chemical communication by hormones- (advantages)  
(i)  Electrical impulses have their limitations because they reach only those cells connected 
to the nervous tissue.  
(ii) Also the nerve cells cannot generate & transmit impulses continuously.  
(iii)Electrical communication is slower. 
 
? Hormones- (i)  are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands 
                         (ii) Are secreted in small amounts & may act in nearby places or distant places. 
(iii) Do not take part in the reaction & are destroyed immediately. 
 
 
 
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Page 3


46 
 
CHAPTER 7 – CONTROL & COORDINATION 
 
KEY CONCEPTS & GIST OF THE LESSON 
 
? Coordination-The working together of various organs of the body of an organism in a proper 
manner to produce appropriate reaction to a stimulus is called coordination. 
 
? Stimulus- The changes in the environment to which an organism responds and reacts is called 
Stimulus 
 
? Control & coordination in animals- takes place by (i) Nervous system & (ii) Endocrine system 
 
? Nervous system 
                    Stimulus ?  Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Brain/Spinal cord 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                              Response  ? Effector organ   ?    Motor nerve  
 
?  Endocrine system 
                     Stimulus ?  Endocrine organ ?  Secrete hormone  ? Hormone in blood 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                                                          Response  ?    Target organ  
? Parts of the Nervous system – (i)  Brain  (ii) Spinal cord  (iii) Nerves (Neurons) 
 
? A Neuron is the structural & functional unit of Nervous system 
 
? Parts of a neuron- (i)  Dendrites  (ii)  Cell body  (iii) Axon 
 
? Synapse- Space/junction between two adjacent nerves is called Synapse. 
 
? Passing of information takes place –(i) By Electric impulse (inside the neuron) and                                   
(ii) In the form of chemicals (At synapse) 
 
? Reflex action- Spontaneous, involuntary and automatic response to a stimulus to protect us 
from harmful situations. Eg. On touching a hot object unknowingly we instantly withdraw our 
hand. 
 
? Reflex arc- The pathway of the reflex action is called Reflex arc. 
          Stimulus ? Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Spinal cord ??Effector organ?  Response  
         Refer to figure 7.2 page no. 117 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
? Nervous system- (1)  Central Nervous system (CNS)           (2) Peripheral Nervous system 
(PNS) 
                                                (i)  Brain                                                   (i)  Autonomic Nervous system 
                                                (ii)  Spinal cord                                          (ii)  Voluntary Nervous system 
 
? Brain  (i)  Centre of coordination of all activities (ii)  Thinking is involved (iii) Complex 
process 
? Parts of brain-       Refer to figure 7.3 page no. 118 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book 
 
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47 
 
    Fore brain                             Mid brain                       Hind brain 
                                       
(i) Cerebrum                                                                                                                
 (ii)  Thalamus                                                                                                     
(iii)  Hypothallamus                                                         
 
            ---------- 
                                                                                                         
(i) Cerebellum                                                                                                          
(ii) Pons                                                       
(iii)  Medulla oblongata                                                      
 
? Fore brain 
       Cerebrum- (i)  Main thinking and largest part of the brain. 
                         (ii)  It has 3 main areas-  
a. Sensory area- to receive impulses from sense organs via 
Receptors 
b. Motor area- control voluntary movements. 
c. Association areas- Reasoning, learning & intelligence. 
      Thalamus – It relays sensory information to the Cerebrum 
      Hypothallamus- It forms the link between Nervous system & Endocrine system 
 
? Mid brain- It connects Fore brain and Hind brain. Controls reflex of eyes & ears 
 
? Hind brain- Connects the Fore brain & Hind brain 
             Cerebellum – Controls & coordinates muscular movements, maintaining body posture and 
equilibrium.   
             Pons- Acts as a bridge between brain & spinal cord   
             Medulla oblongata- Controls involuntary actions like blood pressure, salivation, vomiting, etc. 
 
? Spinal cord- Cylindrical or tubular structure extending downwards from the Medulla 
oblongata.  
 
? Protection of the brain & the spinal cord-                                                                                                   
(i) Bony outer covering: skull for the brain & vertebral column for the spinal cord.  
(ii)  Cerebrospinal fluid present in between the three membranes. 
 
? Action caused by  Nervous tissue                                                                                                    
Information  ? Nervous tissue ?  Brain Muscles ? Causes action 
? Path or action-                                                                                                                                           
Nerve impulse  ?  Muscle cell  ?  Changes shape  due to special proteins   
                                                                                                 ?                        
                Action caused   ? Shorter form of muscles ? Change shape & arrangement of cell     
? Chemical communication by hormones- (advantages)  
(i)  Electrical impulses have their limitations because they reach only those cells connected 
to the nervous tissue.  
(ii) Also the nerve cells cannot generate & transmit impulses continuously.  
(iii)Electrical communication is slower. 
 
? Hormones- (i)  are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands 
                         (ii) Are secreted in small amounts & may act in nearby places or distant places. 
(iii) Do not take part in the reaction & are destroyed immediately. 
 
 
 
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48 
 
? Hormones are secreted by-     Endocrine glands & Exocrine glands 
              
S. No. Endocrine glands Exocrine glands 
1. Ducts absent Ducts present                        
2. Secrete hormones              Secrete enzymes            
3. Secreted in blood              Secreted in ducts of glands 
4.  Situated away from the site of action Situated near the site of action 
                                                     
? Some glands which act as both endocrine & exocrine  
    
Gland  Endocrine function Exocrine function 
Pancreas Produces insulin & Glucagon 
hormone. 
Produces digestive enzyme. (pancreatic 
amylase) 
Testes Produces hormone 
Testosterone 
Produces male gametes (reproductive cells) 
Ovaries  Produces hormone Oestrogen Produces female gametes (reproductive 
cells) 
 
? Important Endocrine glands, the hormone they secrete & their function 
            Refer to figure 7.7 page no. 124 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
Endocrine gland         Hormone       Function 
Pituitary gland Growth hormone Body growth, development of bones & muscles 
(If excess- Gigantism) 
(If less- Dwarfism) 
Thyroid gland Thyroxine   Regulates carbohydrate, protein &  fat 
metabolism( If less- Goitre_ 
Pancreas Produces insulin & 
Glucagon hormone 
Regulates blood sugar levels (if less diabetes is 
caused) 
Testes in males Produces hormone 
Testosterone 
Development of secondary male characters like 
deep voice, beard, etc. 
Ovaries in 
females 
Produces hormone 
Oestrogen 
Development of secondary female characters like 
mammary glands, menstrual cycle, maintenance 
of pregnancy. 
? Coordination in plants- Only chemical coordination is present in plants. 
? Tropic movements- The movements of plants in the direction of stimulus (positive) or away 
from it (negative) are called tropic movements. E.g. Phototropism, Geotropism. 
Chemotropism. 
            Refer to figure 7.4 & 7.5 page no. 121 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
? Nastic movements -The movements of plants independent of stimuli are called nastic 
movements. E.g.- Touch me not plant leaves close when touched. 
? Plant hormones (Phytohormones)   
Examples- 1. Auxins- Help in growth of root & shoot tips. 
                  2.  Gibberellins- Help in vegetative growth 
                  3.  Cytokinins- Promote cell division 
                  4.  Abscissic acid - Inhibits growth & causes wilting (falling) of leaves 
? Important diagrams- 
1. Structure of neuron (nerve cell)2.Reflex arc 3.Human brain4.Endocrine glands . 
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Page 4


46 
 
CHAPTER 7 – CONTROL & COORDINATION 
 
KEY CONCEPTS & GIST OF THE LESSON 
 
? Coordination-The working together of various organs of the body of an organism in a proper 
manner to produce appropriate reaction to a stimulus is called coordination. 
 
? Stimulus- The changes in the environment to which an organism responds and reacts is called 
Stimulus 
 
? Control & coordination in animals- takes place by (i) Nervous system & (ii) Endocrine system 
 
? Nervous system 
                    Stimulus ?  Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Brain/Spinal cord 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                              Response  ? Effector organ   ?    Motor nerve  
 
?  Endocrine system 
                     Stimulus ?  Endocrine organ ?  Secrete hormone  ? Hormone in blood 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                                                          Response  ?    Target organ  
? Parts of the Nervous system – (i)  Brain  (ii) Spinal cord  (iii) Nerves (Neurons) 
 
? A Neuron is the structural & functional unit of Nervous system 
 
? Parts of a neuron- (i)  Dendrites  (ii)  Cell body  (iii) Axon 
 
? Synapse- Space/junction between two adjacent nerves is called Synapse. 
 
? Passing of information takes place –(i) By Electric impulse (inside the neuron) and                                   
(ii) In the form of chemicals (At synapse) 
 
? Reflex action- Spontaneous, involuntary and automatic response to a stimulus to protect us 
from harmful situations. Eg. On touching a hot object unknowingly we instantly withdraw our 
hand. 
 
? Reflex arc- The pathway of the reflex action is called Reflex arc. 
          Stimulus ? Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Spinal cord ??Effector organ?  Response  
         Refer to figure 7.2 page no. 117 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
? Nervous system- (1)  Central Nervous system (CNS)           (2) Peripheral Nervous system 
(PNS) 
                                                (i)  Brain                                                   (i)  Autonomic Nervous system 
                                                (ii)  Spinal cord                                          (ii)  Voluntary Nervous system 
 
? Brain  (i)  Centre of coordination of all activities (ii)  Thinking is involved (iii) Complex 
process 
? Parts of brain-       Refer to figure 7.3 page no. 118 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book 
 
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47 
 
    Fore brain                             Mid brain                       Hind brain 
                                       
(i) Cerebrum                                                                                                                
 (ii)  Thalamus                                                                                                     
(iii)  Hypothallamus                                                         
 
            ---------- 
                                                                                                         
(i) Cerebellum                                                                                                          
(ii) Pons                                                       
(iii)  Medulla oblongata                                                      
 
? Fore brain 
       Cerebrum- (i)  Main thinking and largest part of the brain. 
                         (ii)  It has 3 main areas-  
a. Sensory area- to receive impulses from sense organs via 
Receptors 
b. Motor area- control voluntary movements. 
c. Association areas- Reasoning, learning & intelligence. 
      Thalamus – It relays sensory information to the Cerebrum 
      Hypothallamus- It forms the link between Nervous system & Endocrine system 
 
? Mid brain- It connects Fore brain and Hind brain. Controls reflex of eyes & ears 
 
? Hind brain- Connects the Fore brain & Hind brain 
             Cerebellum – Controls & coordinates muscular movements, maintaining body posture and 
equilibrium.   
             Pons- Acts as a bridge between brain & spinal cord   
             Medulla oblongata- Controls involuntary actions like blood pressure, salivation, vomiting, etc. 
 
? Spinal cord- Cylindrical or tubular structure extending downwards from the Medulla 
oblongata.  
 
? Protection of the brain & the spinal cord-                                                                                                   
(i) Bony outer covering: skull for the brain & vertebral column for the spinal cord.  
(ii)  Cerebrospinal fluid present in between the three membranes. 
 
? Action caused by  Nervous tissue                                                                                                    
Information  ? Nervous tissue ?  Brain Muscles ? Causes action 
? Path or action-                                                                                                                                           
Nerve impulse  ?  Muscle cell  ?  Changes shape  due to special proteins   
                                                                                                 ?                        
                Action caused   ? Shorter form of muscles ? Change shape & arrangement of cell     
? Chemical communication by hormones- (advantages)  
(i)  Electrical impulses have their limitations because they reach only those cells connected 
to the nervous tissue.  
(ii) Also the nerve cells cannot generate & transmit impulses continuously.  
(iii)Electrical communication is slower. 
 
? Hormones- (i)  are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands 
                         (ii) Are secreted in small amounts & may act in nearby places or distant places. 
(iii) Do not take part in the reaction & are destroyed immediately. 
 
 
 
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48 
 
? Hormones are secreted by-     Endocrine glands & Exocrine glands 
              
S. No. Endocrine glands Exocrine glands 
1. Ducts absent Ducts present                        
2. Secrete hormones              Secrete enzymes            
3. Secreted in blood              Secreted in ducts of glands 
4.  Situated away from the site of action Situated near the site of action 
                                                     
? Some glands which act as both endocrine & exocrine  
    
Gland  Endocrine function Exocrine function 
Pancreas Produces insulin & Glucagon 
hormone. 
Produces digestive enzyme. (pancreatic 
amylase) 
Testes Produces hormone 
Testosterone 
Produces male gametes (reproductive cells) 
Ovaries  Produces hormone Oestrogen Produces female gametes (reproductive 
cells) 
 
? Important Endocrine glands, the hormone they secrete & their function 
            Refer to figure 7.7 page no. 124 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
Endocrine gland         Hormone       Function 
Pituitary gland Growth hormone Body growth, development of bones & muscles 
(If excess- Gigantism) 
(If less- Dwarfism) 
Thyroid gland Thyroxine   Regulates carbohydrate, protein &  fat 
metabolism( If less- Goitre_ 
Pancreas Produces insulin & 
Glucagon hormone 
Regulates blood sugar levels (if less diabetes is 
caused) 
Testes in males Produces hormone 
Testosterone 
Development of secondary male characters like 
deep voice, beard, etc. 
Ovaries in 
females 
Produces hormone 
Oestrogen 
Development of secondary female characters like 
mammary glands, menstrual cycle, maintenance 
of pregnancy. 
? Coordination in plants- Only chemical coordination is present in plants. 
? Tropic movements- The movements of plants in the direction of stimulus (positive) or away 
from it (negative) are called tropic movements. E.g. Phototropism, Geotropism. 
Chemotropism. 
            Refer to figure 7.4 & 7.5 page no. 121 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
? Nastic movements -The movements of plants independent of stimuli are called nastic 
movements. E.g.- Touch me not plant leaves close when touched. 
? Plant hormones (Phytohormones)   
Examples- 1. Auxins- Help in growth of root & shoot tips. 
                  2.  Gibberellins- Help in vegetative growth 
                  3.  Cytokinins- Promote cell division 
                  4.  Abscissic acid - Inhibits growth & causes wilting (falling) of leaves 
? Important diagrams- 
1. Structure of neuron (nerve cell)2.Reflex arc 3.Human brain4.Endocrine glands . 
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49 
 
? Important activities- 
1. To compare taste of sugar and food with open & blocked nostrils. 
2. To demonstrate the response of a plant to the direction of light. 
3. To demonstrate hydrotropism. 
                                          MIND MAP 
 
 
 
 
  
CONTROL AND CO-
ORDINATION 
ANIMALS
SSSDSS 
NERVOUS 
SYSTEM 
ENDOCRINE 
SYSTEM 
REFLEX 
ACTION 
CNS 
PNS 
 
Hormone secreted by 
glands 
Reflex arc 
Brain, spinal 
cord 
Neuro
Sensory 
Moto
r 
PLANTS 
Plant 
movement 
Tropic Nastic 
Hormones  
Growth 
promoting 
Growth 
inhibiting 
Independent 
of stimulus 
Direction 
of 
stimulus 
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Page 5


46 
 
CHAPTER 7 – CONTROL & COORDINATION 
 
KEY CONCEPTS & GIST OF THE LESSON 
 
? Coordination-The working together of various organs of the body of an organism in a proper 
manner to produce appropriate reaction to a stimulus is called coordination. 
 
? Stimulus- The changes in the environment to which an organism responds and reacts is called 
Stimulus 
 
? Control & coordination in animals- takes place by (i) Nervous system & (ii) Endocrine system 
 
? Nervous system 
                    Stimulus ?  Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Brain/Spinal cord 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                              Response  ? Effector organ   ?    Motor nerve  
 
?  Endocrine system 
                     Stimulus ?  Endocrine organ ?  Secrete hormone  ? Hormone in blood 
                                                                                                                ? 
                                                                          Response  ?    Target organ  
? Parts of the Nervous system – (i)  Brain  (ii) Spinal cord  (iii) Nerves (Neurons) 
 
? A Neuron is the structural & functional unit of Nervous system 
 
? Parts of a neuron- (i)  Dendrites  (ii)  Cell body  (iii) Axon 
 
? Synapse- Space/junction between two adjacent nerves is called Synapse. 
 
? Passing of information takes place –(i) By Electric impulse (inside the neuron) and                                   
(ii) In the form of chemicals (At synapse) 
 
? Reflex action- Spontaneous, involuntary and automatic response to a stimulus to protect us 
from harmful situations. Eg. On touching a hot object unknowingly we instantly withdraw our 
hand. 
 
? Reflex arc- The pathway of the reflex action is called Reflex arc. 
          Stimulus ? Receptor organ ?  Sensory nerve  ? Spinal cord ??Effector organ?  Response  
         Refer to figure 7.2 page no. 117 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
? Nervous system- (1)  Central Nervous system (CNS)           (2) Peripheral Nervous system 
(PNS) 
                                                (i)  Brain                                                   (i)  Autonomic Nervous system 
                                                (ii)  Spinal cord                                          (ii)  Voluntary Nervous system 
 
? Brain  (i)  Centre of coordination of all activities (ii)  Thinking is involved (iii) Complex 
process 
? Parts of brain-       Refer to figure 7.3 page no. 118 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book 
 
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47 
 
    Fore brain                             Mid brain                       Hind brain 
                                       
(i) Cerebrum                                                                                                                
 (ii)  Thalamus                                                                                                     
(iii)  Hypothallamus                                                         
 
            ---------- 
                                                                                                         
(i) Cerebellum                                                                                                          
(ii) Pons                                                       
(iii)  Medulla oblongata                                                      
 
? Fore brain 
       Cerebrum- (i)  Main thinking and largest part of the brain. 
                         (ii)  It has 3 main areas-  
a. Sensory area- to receive impulses from sense organs via 
Receptors 
b. Motor area- control voluntary movements. 
c. Association areas- Reasoning, learning & intelligence. 
      Thalamus – It relays sensory information to the Cerebrum 
      Hypothallamus- It forms the link between Nervous system & Endocrine system 
 
? Mid brain- It connects Fore brain and Hind brain. Controls reflex of eyes & ears 
 
? Hind brain- Connects the Fore brain & Hind brain 
             Cerebellum – Controls & coordinates muscular movements, maintaining body posture and 
equilibrium.   
             Pons- Acts as a bridge between brain & spinal cord   
             Medulla oblongata- Controls involuntary actions like blood pressure, salivation, vomiting, etc. 
 
? Spinal cord- Cylindrical or tubular structure extending downwards from the Medulla 
oblongata.  
 
? Protection of the brain & the spinal cord-                                                                                                   
(i) Bony outer covering: skull for the brain & vertebral column for the spinal cord.  
(ii)  Cerebrospinal fluid present in between the three membranes. 
 
? Action caused by  Nervous tissue                                                                                                    
Information  ? Nervous tissue ?  Brain Muscles ? Causes action 
? Path or action-                                                                                                                                           
Nerve impulse  ?  Muscle cell  ?  Changes shape  due to special proteins   
                                                                                                 ?                        
                Action caused   ? Shorter form of muscles ? Change shape & arrangement of cell     
? Chemical communication by hormones- (advantages)  
(i)  Electrical impulses have their limitations because they reach only those cells connected 
to the nervous tissue.  
(ii) Also the nerve cells cannot generate & transmit impulses continuously.  
(iii)Electrical communication is slower. 
 
? Hormones- (i)  are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands 
                         (ii) Are secreted in small amounts & may act in nearby places or distant places. 
(iii) Do not take part in the reaction & are destroyed immediately. 
 
 
 
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48 
 
? Hormones are secreted by-     Endocrine glands & Exocrine glands 
              
S. No. Endocrine glands Exocrine glands 
1. Ducts absent Ducts present                        
2. Secrete hormones              Secrete enzymes            
3. Secreted in blood              Secreted in ducts of glands 
4.  Situated away from the site of action Situated near the site of action 
                                                     
? Some glands which act as both endocrine & exocrine  
    
Gland  Endocrine function Exocrine function 
Pancreas Produces insulin & Glucagon 
hormone. 
Produces digestive enzyme. (pancreatic 
amylase) 
Testes Produces hormone 
Testosterone 
Produces male gametes (reproductive cells) 
Ovaries  Produces hormone Oestrogen Produces female gametes (reproductive 
cells) 
 
? Important Endocrine glands, the hormone they secrete & their function 
            Refer to figure 7.7 page no. 124 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
 
Endocrine gland         Hormone       Function 
Pituitary gland Growth hormone Body growth, development of bones & muscles 
(If excess- Gigantism) 
(If less- Dwarfism) 
Thyroid gland Thyroxine   Regulates carbohydrate, protein &  fat 
metabolism( If less- Goitre_ 
Pancreas Produces insulin & 
Glucagon hormone 
Regulates blood sugar levels (if less diabetes is 
caused) 
Testes in males Produces hormone 
Testosterone 
Development of secondary male characters like 
deep voice, beard, etc. 
Ovaries in 
females 
Produces hormone 
Oestrogen 
Development of secondary female characters like 
mammary glands, menstrual cycle, maintenance 
of pregnancy. 
? Coordination in plants- Only chemical coordination is present in plants. 
? Tropic movements- The movements of plants in the direction of stimulus (positive) or away 
from it (negative) are called tropic movements. E.g. Phototropism, Geotropism. 
Chemotropism. 
            Refer to figure 7.4 & 7.5 page no. 121 of N.C.E.R.T  Text book) 
? Nastic movements -The movements of plants independent of stimuli are called nastic 
movements. E.g.- Touch me not plant leaves close when touched. 
? Plant hormones (Phytohormones)   
Examples- 1. Auxins- Help in growth of root & shoot tips. 
                  2.  Gibberellins- Help in vegetative growth 
                  3.  Cytokinins- Promote cell division 
                  4.  Abscissic acid - Inhibits growth & causes wilting (falling) of leaves 
? Important diagrams- 
1. Structure of neuron (nerve cell)2.Reflex arc 3.Human brain4.Endocrine glands . 
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49 
 
? Important activities- 
1. To compare taste of sugar and food with open & blocked nostrils. 
2. To demonstrate the response of a plant to the direction of light. 
3. To demonstrate hydrotropism. 
                                          MIND MAP 
 
 
 
 
  
CONTROL AND CO-
ORDINATION 
ANIMALS
SSSDSS 
NERVOUS 
SYSTEM 
ENDOCRINE 
SYSTEM 
REFLEX 
ACTION 
CNS 
PNS 
 
Hormone secreted by 
glands 
Reflex arc 
Brain, spinal 
cord 
Neuro
Sensory 
Moto
r 
PLANTS 
Plant 
movement 
Tropic Nastic 
Hormones  
Growth 
promoting 
Growth 
inhibiting 
Independent 
of stimulus 
Direction 
of 
stimulus 
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50 
 
CONTROL AND CO - ORDINATION 
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT I 
Q. PAPER 
 
MARKS-30                                                                          TIME- 70 MINUTES 
 
Instructions: 
? Questions : 1 to 5 – 1 Mark each 
? Questions : 6 to 9 – 2 Marks each 
? Questions : 10 to 13 – 3 Marks each 
? Question 14 – 5 Marks 
1. Which endocrine gland is unpaired? 
2. Which part of the brain controlled posture and balance of the body? 
3. Where in a neuron, conversions of electrical signal to a chemical signal occur? 
4. Which gland secretes digestive enzyme as well as hormones? 
5. We suddenly withdraw our hand when a pin pricks. Name the type of response involved in this 
action. 
6. What is a tropic movement? Explain with an example. 
7. What will happen if intake of iodine in our diet is low? 
8. Draw the structure of neuron and label the following on it: 
a. Nucleus 
b. Dendrite 
c. Cell body 
d. Axon 
9. Why are some patients of diabetes treated by giving injections of insulin? 
10. Why is the flow of signals in a synapse from axonal end of one neuron but not the reverse? 
11. What are reflex actions? Explain reflex arc. 
12. What are the major parts of the brains? Mention the functions of each. 
13. How does chemical co – ordination take place in animals? 
14.  
a. Name the various plant hormones. 
b. Give physiological effects of hormones on plant growth and development. 
 
HOTS QUESTIONS (SOLVED / UNSOLVED) 
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