Introduction: Analogy

 Table of contents What is Analogy? Analogy Types Approach to Solve Analogies Tips and Tricks to Solve Analogies Solved Examples

Analogy questions in competitive exams assess logical reasoning, problem-solving, and cognitive abilities. They demand the identification of patterns and relationships, promoting analytical thinking. These questions gauge both verbal and non-verbal reasoning skills, making the topic integral to competitive exam preparations. Mastering analogies not only aids in exam performance but also nurtures essential skills applicable in various professional scenarios.

## What is Analogy?

An analogy is like a tool that helps explain how different things or ideas are similar or connected to each other.

• Questions of this type examine your ability to precisely define a connection or relationship between two words and to recognize the similarity between two relationships.
• First, define the relationship between the two words in bold type. Then, define the relationship between the pairs of words in each of the possible responses and choose the response in which the relationship is most similar to the relationship between the two words in bold.
• In this type of question, two objects related in some way are given and a third object is also given with four or five alternatives.
• You have to find out which one of the alternatives bears the same relation with the third objects as the first and second objects are related.

## Analogy Types

The analogy is an important topic of reasoning that comes under the logical reasoning section. It has many types and the questions will be formed in all such types. The types of analogy are mentioned below.

### 1. Letter/Word-Based Analogy

• In this type of analogy, a pair of letters or words are given and have certain fixed logical similarities between them.
• As per this pair relationship, another pair of letters or words is also formed in which one word or letter is given and we need to find an unknown letter or word that comes there as per the logical relation following in the first pair.
• It contains questions based on the position of letters, opposite letters, synonyms and antonyms of words, etc.
• The candidates need to understand the logic followed in the first given pair and then find the next pair following the same logic.
• Example
D : F: : R:?
In D and F there is a difference of two then the unknown letter will be T. Now the series will be D : F: : R: T

Question for Introduction: Analogy
Try yourself:ABCXYZ : DEFUVW:: GHIRST?

### 2. Number-Based Analogy

• In this type of analogy, a pair of numbers is given which is related in a certain manner and we need to find the unknown number following the same logic followed in the given pair.
• The questions will be formed in a number-based analogy based on the basic mathematical operations of numbers like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
• Apart from this, the questions are also firmed based on squares and cubes of numbers, etc.
• Example:
5 : 25 : : 7 : ?
52 = 25 then 72 = 49

2 : 8 : : 6 : ?
23 = 8 then 63 = 216

Question for Introduction: Analogy
Try yourself:4 : 20 : : 8 : ?

### 3. Letters/Words and Number-Based Analogy (Mixed Analogy)

• In this type of analogy, the questions will be formed on both words/letters and numbers. It is also known as a mixed analogy.
• The candidate first needs to understand the relation of logic by which letters or words and numbers are related to each other and follow the same logic the unknown number and letters or words need to be found.
• Example:
B2D5 : C4E25 : : F5H9 : ?
B+1 = C, 22 = 2, D+1 = E, 52 = 25
i.e. B2D5 = C4E25 then
F+1 = G, 52 = 25, H+1 = I, 92 = 81
Then, F5H9 = G25I81

### 4. Image-Based Analogy

• In this type of analogy figures and images are given and have certain similarities between them.
•  The candidates need to mark the logic followed in the given pair of images and predict the new unknown image using this logic.
•  The questions will be formed on mirror images, water images, and rotation of figures in clockwise and anti-clockwise directions. The candidates need to answer the resultant figure based on the relationship or logic followed in the given pair.
• Example:
Select a suitable figure from the Answer Figures that would replace the question mark (?).

Solution: We can see that in the first row, the second image is vertically opposite of the first image. Hence, even in the second row, we will follow the same rule.

### 5. Miscellaneous Analogy

• In this type of analogy, the questions will be formed on any logic or relationship.
• In this type, the questions are asked from any subject or section like General Knowledge, General Awareness, Current Affairs, Science and Technology, Mathematics, etc.
The candidates must know all these sections well to answer these questions. It requires more and more practice.
• Example:
Force : Newton : : Current : ___
SI unit of Force is Newton similarly SI unit of Current is Ampere

Question for Introduction: Analogy
Try yourself:India : Rupee: : Japan : ___

## Approach to Solve Analogies

Basically, in analogy questions, you have four pairs of words as options. These pairs of words share some kind of relationship that you need to decipher. However, amongst these four pairs, a pair of words shares the same relationship with its pair as the pair given in the question.
Question: Artist : Painting ::
(a) Driver: Car
(b) Composer : Symphony
(c) Surgeon : Operation
(d) Novel : Author

Ans: (b)
Sol:

• Now, let’s again read the initial pair of words, but substituting words for colons. The first colon (:) is translated as “is to” and two colons (::) are translated as “as”. So, it will be read as “Artist is to Painting as…”. Next, let’s look into this question: What is the relationship an artist and a painting shares? An artist creates a painting.
• Therefore, the pair we are looking for should share a relationship closest to that between an artist and a painting. Let us consider the first option: A driver drives a car. We definitely know that the relationship between the Driver and the car is not the same as between the Artist and the painting. Consequently, that option is eliminated.
• With the first option eliminated, we have three more options to look into. Considering the options, we know that a Surgeon “does” an operation, “a Novel is written by an Author”.  These options do not reflect the relationship that an Artist and a painting share. However, option b is Composer is to Symphony.
• We know that a Composer creates a Symphony. This is the only option that comes closest to the relationship between an Artist and a painting. So, the correct option is B.

## Tips and Tricks to Solve Analogies

• The study of analogy is simple. It falls into neat, distinguishable patterns. Thus, it can be learned. Try to decipher these patterns quickly.
• Gain familiarity with the patterns that analogies’ question exhibit over and over again. This will help you identify the trap. Consequently, you will be able to increasingly develop your ability to solve analogies’ questions quickly.
• Remember that while solving an analogy question, you must look for the precise relationship that the pair of words share in the question.
• If you cannot find an exact match of the relationship in the pairs of words , then the relationship you have formed between the pair of words is inaccurate. That is because analogies involve an exactness and precision to their solving.
• It is also extremely important to substitute the pair of words into your sentence in the same order as they are given in. For instance, “artist creates a painting” is correct and “a painting created by an artist” is incorrect.

## Solved Examples

Example 1: baker : eating -
(a) surgeon : anesthesia
(c) gardener : watering
(d) policeman : enforcement
Ans: (b)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: eating is an activity involving the product of the baker's work. Response (b) has the same relationship: reading is an activity involving the product of the author's work. The other responses are incorrect: anesthesia is a stage that precedes a surgeon's work. Watering is one of the jobs of a gardenerEnforcement is the objective of the policeman's work.

Example 2: to shutter : is closed -
(a) to explain : is understood
(b) to estimate : is exact
(c) to believe : is correct
(d) to permit : is forbidden
Ans: (a)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: to shutter something causes it to be closed. Response (a) contains the same relationship: to explain something causes it to be understood. The other responses are incorrect: to estimate is to make an approximate calculation of something's worth, not an exact one; to believe something is to think that it is correct; to permit something means to declare that it is not forbidden.

Example 3: deck : fleet -
(a) ruler : country
(b) roof : neighborhood
(c) clothespin : laundry
(d) player : team
Ans: (b)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: a deck is the upper part of a ship, and a group of ships makes up a fleetResponse (b) contains the same relationship: a roof is the upper part of a house, and a group of houses makes up a neighborhood. The other responses are incorrect: a ruler is someone who rules over a country. A clothespin is a means for hanging laundry on a clothesline. A player may be part of a team.

Example 4: warn : wariness -
(a) distort : truth
(b) provoke : anger
(c) know : proficiency
Ans: (b)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: to warn means to do something that produces wariness in someone else. Response (2) contains the same relationship: to provoke means to do something that produces anger in someone else. The other responses are incorrect: to distort means to twist the truth. To know means to have proficiency. To dissuade means to cause someone to refrain from a particular action.

Example 5: Curd : Milk :: Shoe : ?
(a) Leather
(b) Cloth
(c) Jute
(d) Silver
Ans: (a)
Sol: As curd is made from milk similarly shoe is made from leather.

Example 6: Calf : Piglet :: Shed : ?
(a) Prison
(b) Nest
(c) Pigsty
(d) Den
Ans: (c)
Sol: Calf is young one of the cow and piglet is the young of Pig. Shed is the dwelling place of cow. Similarly Pigsty is the dwelling place of pig.

Example 7: Malaria : Mosquito :: ? : ?
(a) Poison : Death
(b) Cholera : Water
(c) Rat : Plague
(d) Medicine : Disease
Ans: (b)
Sol: As malaria is caused due to mosquito similarly cholera is cause due to water.

Example 8: ABC : ZYX :: CBA : ?
(a) XYZ
(b) BCA
(c) YZX
(d) ZXY
Ans: (a)
Sol: CBA is the reverse of ABC similarly XYZ is the reverse of ZYX.

Example 9: 4 : 18 :: 6 : ?
(a) 32
(b) 38
(c) 11
(d) 37
Ans: (b)
Sol: As, (4)2 + 2 =18
Similarly, (6)2 + 2 = 38.

Example 10: Chill : Freeze
(a) Slice : Cut
(b) Simmer : Boil
(c) Roast : Stew
(d) Cook : Fry
Ans:
(b)
Sol:  In this problem, the student is expected to spot the relationship that Chill is a lower degree than Freeze and Simmer and Boil are similarly related as Simmer is a lower degree than Boil. The answer thus is option (b).

The document Introduction: Analogy | CSAT Preparation - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course CSAT Preparation.
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## FAQs on Introduction: Analogy - CSAT Preparation - UPSC

 1. What is an analogy in the context of solving SSC CGL exams?
An analogy is a comparison between two things that are similar in some way. In the context of SSC CGL exams, analogies are often used as a type of question where candidates are required to identify the relationship between a pair of words and then apply that same relationship to another pair of words.
 2. What are the different types of analogies that can be asked in SSC CGL exams?
The different types of analogies that can be asked in SSC CGL exams include synonym analogies, antonym analogies, part to whole analogies, cause and effect analogies, and degree analogies.
 3. How can one approach solving analogies in SSC CGL exams?
One approach to solving analogies in SSC CGL exams is to carefully analyze the relationship between the words in the given pair and then apply the same relationship to the options provided. It is important to look for patterns, connections, and similarities between the words.
 4. What are some tips and tricks to effectively solve analogies in SSC CGL exams?
Some tips and tricks to effectively solve analogies in SSC CGL exams include understanding the meaning of the words, identifying the relationship between the words in the given pair, eliminating options that do not fit the relationship, and practicing regularly to improve your skills.
 5. Can you provide a solved example of an analogy question that may appear in the SSC CGL exam?
Sure. Here is an example: Apple is to fruit as potato is to ______. The correct answer would be vegetable, as both apple and potato are types of fruits and vegetables respectively.

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