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Class 5 EVS Question Answers - Documents

I.    Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
 1.
   Which of the following is the appropriate reason that excited Swing rioters to destroy threshing machines during 1930s in England?
(a)    They broke these machines in the name of Captain Swing.
(b)    These machines deprived workmen of their livelihood.
(c)    Captain Swing was a person who broke all these machines.
(d)    They were threatening landlords.

2.    Why was common land essential for survival of the poor in England? 
(a)    Common land supplemented income of the poor and helped them during bad times.
(b)    Poor could move freely in common land.
(c)    Poor could set up industry in common land.
(d)    All of the above

3.    Who was the American leader under whom maximum expansion of wheat cultivation took place?  
(a)    President Wilson        
(b)    President Lincoln
(c)    President Bush
(d)    President Clinton

4.    When did the White Americans move into the Mississippi valley? 
(a)    Between 1750 and 1850
(b)    Between 1830 and 1832
(c)    Between 1820 and 1850 
(d)    Between 1771 and 1850

5.    What item/items did the British merchants import from China? 
(a)    Silk
(b)    Tea
(c)     Both (a) and (b)
(d)    None of the above

6.    Which of the following countries became the bread ‘basket of the world’?
(a)    America
(b)    China
(c)    Japan
(d)    India

7.    By 1773, the British government in Bengal had established a monopoly to trade in—
(a)    indigo
(b)    opium
(c)    tea
(d)    cotton

8.    Why did East India Company start triangular trade between India-China-Britain?
(a)    To take balance of trade in favour of the Company
(b)    To get maximum profits
(c)    To attain favour from China
(d)    To get profit from India

9.    Why were the Manchus not willing to allow entry of foreign goods in China?
(a)    They did not need foreign goods.
(b)    They had no money to buy foreign goods.
(c)    They feared that the merchants would meddle in local polity and disrupt their authority.
(d)    None of the above.

10.    Why were peasants in the 19th century unwilling to cultivate opium in India? 
(a)    The price paid by government was very low.
(b)    The plants were delicate.
(c)    The cultivators were poor.
(d)    All of the above

11.    Which of the following was the main reason for unfavourable balance of trade between China and East India Company during the nineteenth century? 
(a)    East India Company bought tea in return of silver coins.
(b)    China did not allow any foreign product in place of it.
(c)    East India Company forced to sell tea in loss. 
(d)    China favoured the Company.

12.    When did Cyrus McCormick invent the first mechanical reaper?
(a)    In 1811
(b)    In 1831
(c)    In 1801
(d)    In 1809

13.    What was done in different countries of England during the Captain Swing movement?
(a)    Threshing machines were broken.
(b)    Rich farmers were compelled to help poor farmers.
(c)    Landowners were looted.
(d)    Agriculture was expanded.

14.    What was the scythe used for before the mid-nineteenth century?
(a)    For sowing seeds.    
(b)    For harvesting crop.
(c)    For cutting grass.
(d)    For cutting vegetables.

15.    Opium was known primarily for its—
(a)    medicinal properties
(b)    deadly effect on its users
(c)    refreshing effect on its users
(d)    excellent taste

16.    The English population began to expand rapidly from—
(a)    the nineteenth century
(b)    the mid-eighteenth century
(c)    the early-eighteenth century
(d)    the eighteenth century

Ans.    1. (b)    2. (a)    3. (a)    4. (c)    5. (c)    6. (a)    7. (b)    8. (a)    9. (c)    10. (d)    11. (a)    12. (b)    13. (a)    14. (c)    15. (a)    16. (b)

II.    Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q1.    Give one reason that excited Swing rioters to destroy the threshing machines during 1930s in England?
Ans.    These machines deprived workmen of their livelihood.

Q2.    Why was common land essential for the survival of the poor in England?
Ans.    Common land supplemented income of the poor and helped them during bad times.

Q3.    Who was the American leader under whose period maximum expansion of wheat cultivation took place?
Ans.    Maximum expansion of wheat cultivation took place under President Wilson.

Q4.    Which two items did the British merchants import from China?
Ans.    The British merchants imported silk and tea from China.

Q5.    Why did the East India Company start triangular trade between India-China-Britain?
Ans.    The East India Company started triangular trade between India-China-Britain to take balance of trade in favour of the Company.

Q6.    Why were the Manchus not willing to allow entry of foreign goods in China?
Ans.    They feared that the merchants would meddle in local polity and disrupt their authority.

Q7.    Why were the Indian peasants in the nineteenth century unwilling to grow opium? Give two reasons.
Ans. (i) The cultivation of opium was a difficult process.
(ii) The price the government paid to the cultivators for the opium they produced was very low.

Q8.    What was the main reason for unfavourable balance of trade between China and East India Company during the nineteenth century?
Ans.    The East India Company bought tea from China only by paying in silver coins or bullion. This meant an overflow of treasure from England, a prospect that created widespread anxiety.

Q9.    What was done in different countries of England during the Captain Swing movement?
Ans.    Threshing machines were broken on a large scale.

Q10.    What was the scythe used for before the mid-nineteenth century?
Ans.    Before the mid-nineteenth century, the scythe was used for cutting grass.

Q11.    Who created the early enclosures?
Ans.    Individual landlords created the early enclosures.

Q12.    How were the sixteenth century enclosures different from the late-eighteenth century enclosures? Give one point.
Ans.    The sixteenth century enclosures promoted sheep farming whereas the late eighteenth century enclosures promoted grain production.

Q13.    When did the English population expand rapidly?
Ans.    From the mid-eighteenth century, the English population expanded rapidly. Between 1750 and 1900, it multiplied over four times, mounting from 7 million in 1750 to 21 million in 1850 and 30 million in 1900.

Q14.    How was increase in foodgrain production made possible in England in the late eighteenth century?
Ans.    It was made possible by bringing new lands under cultivation.

Q15.    What promoted farmers in England to grow turnips and cloves?
Ans.    When farmers came to know that planting of turnips and clovers improved the soil and made it more fertile, they began to grow these crops. Turnip was also a good fodder crop relished by cattle.

Q16.    How did land enclosures affect the life of the landlords and the poor?
Ans.    Land enclosures made the landlords prosperous. But, at the same time, the poor became poorer. For a very large part of the year, they had no work.

Q17.    How did the poor view the threshing machines?
Ans.    They viewed the threshing machines as a sign of bad times. They became poorer because employment was not certain now.

Q18.    From the late nineteenth century, there was a dramatic expansion of  wheat production in the USA. Give two reasons.
Ans.(i) The urban population in the USA was growing as a result of which demand of wheat increased.
(ii)     The export market was becoming ever bigger.

Q19.    Who said, “Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war.”?
Ans.    US President Wilson said it.

Q20.    How did Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper prove to be a boon for the farmers in the USA?
Ans.    This mechanical reaper could cut in one day as much as five men could cut with cradles and 16 men with sickles.

Q21.    What was opium known primarily for?
Ans.    Opium was known primarily for its medicinal properties and used in minuscule quantities for certain types of medicines.

Q22.    What was the triangular trade?
Ans.    The triangular trade took place between India, China and Britain. The British traders took opium from India to China and tea from China to England. Between India and England trade flowed both ways.

III.    Short Answer Type Questions

Q1.    The enclosure movement proceeded slowly till the middle of the 18th century. Why? What happened after that?
Ans.(i)     The early enclosures were usually created by individual landlords. They were not supported by the state or the church.
(ii)    After the mid-18th century, the enclosure movement swept through the countryside, changing the English landscape for ever. Between 1750 and 1850, 6 million acres of land was enclosed.
(iii)    The British Parliament no longer watched this process from a distance. It passed 4,000 Acts legalising these enclosures.

Q2.    Why was the land being enclosed in the late eighteenth century England?
Ans.(i)    In the late eighteenth century England, the land was being enclosed for grain production. These enclosures became a sign of a changing time. From the mid-18th century, English population expanded rapidly. Between 1750 and 1900, it multiplied over four times, mounting from 7 million in 1750 to 21 million in 1850 and 30 million in 1900.
(ii)    This meant an increased demand for foodgrains to feed the population. Moreover, Britain at this time was industrialising. More and more people began to live and work in urban areas. Men from rural areas migrated to towns in search of jobs.
(iii)    To survive, they had to buy foodgrains in the market. As the urban population grew, the market for foodgrains expanded and, when demand increased rapidly, foodgrain prices rose. This encouraged landowners to enclose lands and enlarge the area under grain cultivation.

Q3.    How were the poor affected by enclosures?
Ans.(i)     Enclosures made the life of the poor miserable. When fences came up, the enclosed land became the exclusive property of one landowner. The poor could no longer collect their firewood from the forests, or graze their cattle on the commons.
(ii)    They could no longer collect apples and berries, or hunt small animals for meat. Nor could they gather the stalks that lay on the fields after the crops were cut.
(iii)    Everything belonged to the landlords, everything had a price which the poor could not afford to pay.  In places where enclosures happened on an extensive scale, the poor were displaced from the land.
(iv)    Deprived of their customary rights and driven off the land, they tramped in search of work.

Q4.    What were the factors that contributed to the expansion of wheat-production in the USA from the late 19th century?
Ans.    Several factors contributed to the expansion of wheat production in the USA:
(i)    The urban population in the USA was growing and the export market was becoming ever bigger.
(ii)    As the demand increased, wheat prices rose encouraging farmers to produce wheat. The spread of the railways made it easy to transport the grain from the wheat-growing regions to the eastern coast for export.
(iii)    By the early 20th century, the demand became even higher, and, during the First World War, the world market boomed. Russian supplies of wheat were cut off and the USA had to feed Europe. US President Wilson called upon farmers to respond to the need of the time. Hence, farmers began to grow more and more wheat.

Q5.    How did mechanisation of agriculture affect the lives of the poor farmers in the USA?    [HOTS] Or
        “Machines brought untold miseries for the poor.” Explain.
Ans.(i)    Many of the farmers bought machines, imagining that wheat prices would remain high and profits would flow in. If they had no money, the banks offered loans. Those, who borrowed, found it difficult to pay back their debts. Many of them deserted their farms and looked for jobs elsewhere.
(ii)    But it was not easy to find jobs. Mechanisation had reduced the need for labour. And the boom of the late 19th and early 20th centuries seemed to have come to an end by the mid-1920s. After that, most farmers faced trouble. Production had expanded so rapidly during the war and post-war years that there was a large surplus.
(iii)    Unsold stocks piled up, storehouses overflowed with grain, and vast amounts of corn and wheat were turned into animal feed. Wheat prices fell and export markets collapsed. This created the grounds for the Great Agrarian Depression of the 1930s that ruined wheat farmers everywhere.

Q6.    What happened when the entire region of the Great Plains became a dust bowl? Or
          What were the consequences of expansion of wheat cultivation in the Great Plains?
Ans.(i)    Terrifying dust-storms began to blow over the southern plains of America. Black blizzards rolled in, very often 7,000 to 8,000 feet high, rising the monstrous waves of muddy water.
(ii)    They came day after day, year after year, through the 1930s. As the skies darkened, and the dust swept in, people were blinded and choked. Cattle were suffocated to death, their lungs choked with dust and mud.
(iii)    Sand buried fences, covered fields, and coated the surfaces of rivers till the fish died. Dead bodies of birds and animals were scattered all over the landscape.
(iv)    Tractors and machines that had ploughed the earth and harvested the wheat in the 1920s were now clogged with dust, damaged beyond repair.

Q7.    What was opium primarily known for? How were the Chinese made addicted to it?
Ans.    Opium was primarily known for its medicinal properties and was used in miniscule quantities for certain types of medicines. The Chinese were well aware of the dangers of its addiction, and the Emperor had, therefore, forbidden its production and sale except for medicinal purposes. But western merchants in the mid-18th century began an illegal trade in opium. It was unloaded in a number of seaports of south-eastern China and carried by local agents to the interiors. By the early 1820s, about 1,000 crates were being annually smuggled into China. Fifteen years later, over 35,000 crates were being unloaded every year. This meant that the Chinese became addicted to opium. People of all classes took to the drug — shopkeepers and peddlers, officials and army men, aristocrats and paupers. In 1839, it was estimated that 4 million Chinese had become opium smokers. Thus, China became a country of opium addicts.

Q8.    How did the British government persuade the unwilling cultivators to grow opium?[HOTS] Or
          How were the unwilling cultivators made to produce opium?
Ans.(i)    Indian cultivators were not ready to grow opium because it was an unprofitable business for them. Seeing their unwillingness, the British government started a system of advances.
(ii)    In the normal areas of Bengal and Bihar, there were a large numbers of poor peasants. They never had enough to survive. From the 1780s, such peasants found their village headmen giving them money advances to grow opium.
(iii)    The innocent peasants did not understand that it was the government opium agents who were advancing the money to the headmen, who in turn gave to them.
(iv)    When offered a loan, the cultivators were tempted to accept, hoping to meet their immediate needs and pay back the loan at a later stage. Thus, it was the system of advances that made the unwilling cultivators grow opium.

Q9.    How did the system of advances tie the peasants to the British government? Or
        “After accepting money advances, the cultivators had no option but to grow opium.” Explain.    [HOTS]
Ans.(i)    When the British government started the system of advances, many cultivators became ready to grow opium. They thought that they would fulfil their immediate needs with the loan and would pay back it at a later stage.
(ii)    But the loan tied the peasants to the government. By taking the loan, they were forced to grow opium on a specified area of land and hand over the produce to the agents once crop had been harvested.
(iii)    They had no option of planting the field with a crop of his choice or of selling their produce to anyone but the government agent. And they were bound to accept the low price offered for the produce.

Q10.    What is meant by ‘Triangular Trade’? What led to its development?     [HOTS]
Ans.    The triangular trade refers to the trade between England, India and China in the eighteenth century.
(i)    The British East India Company was buying tea and silk from China for sale in England. As tea became a popular English drink, the tea trade became more and more important. 
(ii)    England at this time produced nothing that could be easily sold in China. The western merchants did not have a way to finance the tea trade.
        They could buy tea only by paying in silver coins or bullion. This meant an outflow of treasure from England. 
At last it was decided that opium would be grown in India and transported to China in exchange of tea.

Q11.    How did the westward expansion of settlers in the USA lead to a total destruction of American Indians?                [HOTS]
Ans.(i)    In 1800, Thomas Jefferson became President of the USA. The American War of Independence had been fought from 1775 to 1783 and the formation of the United States of America made it seem like a land of promise from the East Coast.
(ii)    It was during this time that the 700,000 White settlers began to move westward on to the Appalachian Plateau through the passes. The westward expansion of settlers in the USA led to a complete destruction of American Indians who were pushed westwards, down the Mississippi river, and then further west.
(iii)    They fought back, but were defeated. Numerous wars were waged in which Indians were massacred. Their villages were burnt and cattle destroyed.

Q12.    What led to a dramatic expansion of wheat-production in the USA?
Ans.(i)    From the late nineteenth century, there was a dramatic expansion of 
wheat-production in the USA and the export market became bigger.
(ii)    During the First World War, the world market boomed. Russian supplies of wheat were cut off and the USA had to feed Europe.
(iii)    US President Wilson encouraged American farmers to produce more wheat. In 1910, about 45 million acres of land in the USA was under wheat and nine years later it expanded to 74 million acres, an increase of about 65 per cent. 

Q13.    When did the British government in Bengal establish a monopoly to trade in opium? How did people react to it and what steps were taken by the British government to control it?
Ans.(i)    By 1773, the British government in Bengal established a monopoly to trade in opium. No one else was legally permitted to trade in the product.
(ii)    The government wanted to produce opium at a cheap rate and sell it at a high price to opium agents in Calcutta (now Kolkata), who then shipped it to China. But the prices given to the peasants were so low that by the early eighteenth century, angry peasants began agitating for higher prices and refused to take advances. In regions around Benaras, cultivators began giving up opium cultivation.
(iii)    To control the situation, the British instructed its agents posted in the princely states to take away all opium and destroy the crops. This conflict between the British government, peasants and local traders continued as long as opium production lasted.

Q14.    Why did the whole region of the Great Plains become a dust bowl?
Ans.(i)    When wheat cultivation had expanded dramatically in the early 19th century, zealous farmers had recklessly uprooted all vegetation and tractors had turned the soil over and broken the sod into dust.
(ii)    The whole region had become a dust bowl. In the 1930s, terrifying dust-storms began to blow over the southern plains of America.
(iii)    Black blizzard rolled in, very often 7,000 to 8,000 feet high, rising like monstrous waves of muddy water. The American dream of a land of plenty had turned into a nightmare.

IV.     Long Answer Type Questions

Q1.    “The coming of new technology proved to be a boon for the expansion of wheat cultivation in the USA.” Explain.    [HOTS] Or
        What role did the new technology play in the expansion of wheat cultivation in USA?
Ans.(i)    The expansion of wheat cultivation in the USA was made possible by new technology. Through the 19th century, as the White settlers moved into new habitats and new lands, they modified their implements to meet their requirements.
(ii)    When they entered the mid-western prairie, the simple ploughs the farmers had used in the eastern coastal areas of the USA proved ineffective. The prairie was covered with a thick mat of grass with tough roots. To break the sod and turn the soil over, a variety of new ploughs were devised locally.
(iii)    By the early 20th century, farmers in the great plains were breaking the ground with tractors and disc ploughs, clearing vast stretches for wheat cultivation.
(iv)    Before the 1830s, the grain used to be harvested with a cradle or sickle. At harvest time, hundreds of men and women could be seen cutting the crop. In 1831, Cyrus McCormic invented the first mechanical reaper which could cut in one day as much as five men could cut with cradles and 16 men with sickles.
(v)    By the early 20th century, most farmers were using combined harvestors to cut grain. With one of these machines, 500 acres of wheat could be harvested in two weeks.
(vi)    Thus, the new machines enabled the farmers to rapidly clear large tracts, break up the soil, remove the grass and prepare the ground for cultivation. With power-driven machinery, four men could plough, seed and harvest 2,000 to 4,000 acres of wheat in a season.

Q2.    How did the USA become the bread basket of the world? How did it turn into a dust bowl?    [HOTS] Or
        “The American dream of a land of plenty had pushed into a nightmare.” Explain.
Ans.(i)    The USA became the bread basket of the world by developing modern agriculture. After the American Cars of Independence from 1775 to 1783 and the formation of the United States of America, the White Americans began to move westward.
(ii)    By the time Thomas Jefferson became President of the USA in 1800, over 700,000 White settlers had moved on to Appalachian Plateau through the passes. Seen from the east coast, America seemed to be a land of promise.
(iii)    By the first decade of the 18th century, they settled on the Appalachian Plateau and then moved into the Mississippi valley between 1820 and 1850. They made the land for cultivation and sowed corn and wheat.
(iv)    In the early years, the fertile soil produced good crops. When the soil became impoverished in one place, the migrants would move further west to raise new crops.
(v)    It was, however, only after the 1860s that settlers swept into the Great Plains across the river Mississippi. In subsequent decades, the region became a major wheat-producing area of America.
(vi)    From the late 19th century, there was a dramatic expansion of wheat-production in the USA. The urban population in the USA was growing and the export market was becoming ever bigger.
(vii)    As the demand increased, wheat prices rose encouraging farmers to grow more and more wheat.
(viii)    In 1910, about 45 million acre of land in the USA was under wheat. Nine years later, the area had expanded to 74 million acres. Now, the USA began to be called the ‘bread basket of the world’.
(ix)    But it could not maintain this image for a long period. The expansion of wheat production in the Great Plains created severe problems.
(x)    In the 1930s, terrifying dust-storms began to blow over the Southern Plains. Black blizzards rolled in very often 7,000 to 8,000 feet high, rising like monstrous waves of muddy water.
(xi)    They came day after day, year after year, through the 1930s as the skies darkened and the dust swept in, people were blinded and choked.
(xii)    Cattle were suffocated to death, their lungs choked with dust and wind. Dead bodies of birds and animals were scattered all over the landscape.
(xiii)    Tractors and machines, that had ploughed the earth and harvested the wheat in the 1920s, were now clogged with dust, damaged beyond repair. The whole region had become a dust bowl. The American dream of a land of plenty had turned into a nightmare.

Q3.    Write an account on dramatic expansion of wheat-production in the USA and what were the results of expansion of wheat agriculture in the Great Plains?    [HOTS]

Ans.    From the late nineteenth century, there was a dramatic expansion of 
wheat-production in the USA and the export market became bigger. During the First World War, the world market boomed. Russian supplies of wheat were cut off and the USA had to feed Europe. US President Wilson encouraged American farmers to produces more wheat. In 1910, about 45 million acres of land in the USA was under wheat and nine years later it expanded to 74 million acres, an increase of about 65 per cent.
The expansion of wheat agriculture led to terrifying dust-storms in the 1930s. Terrifying dust-storms began to blow over the southern plains of America. It came to be known as ‘Black blizzards’. The dust-storms rose 7,000 to 8,000 feet high. They appeared as monstrous waves of muddy water. They came day after day, year after year, through the 1930s.
As skies darkened, and the dust swept in, people were blinded and choked. Cattle were suffocated to death, their lungs caked with dust and mud. Sand buried fences, covered fields and coated the surfaces of rivers till the fish died. Dead bodies of birds and animals were scattered all over the landscape. Tractors and machines clogged with dust and damaged beyond repair.

Q4.    Discuss the system of advances introduced by the colonial state. How did the system tie the poor farmers to the government?     [HOTS]
Ans.    In the rural areas of Bengal and Bihar, there were large numbers of poor peasants. It was difficult for them to pay rent to the landlord or to buy food and clothing. From 1780s, such peasants found their village headmen giving them money advances to produce opium. When offered a loan, the cultivators were tempted to accept, hoping to meet their immediate needs and pay back the loan at a later stage.
Note: Also see the answer to Q9 (Short Answer Type Questions)

Q5.    What did the enclosure imply? Why was the land enclosed in the 18th century in England?    [HOTS]
Ans.(i)    The land enclosure in England implied a big piece of land which was enclosed from all sides and there were hedges built around it to separate it from the lands of others.
(ii)    The land was enclosed to increase grain production for the rising English population which multiplied over four times between 1750 and 1900 mounting to 7 million in 1750 to 21 million in 1850 and 30 million in 1900. This increased the demand for foodgrains to feed the population.
(iii)    Due to industrialisation in Britain, urban population grew. Men from rural areas migrated to towns in search of jobs. To survive, they had to buy foodgrains in the market which expanded and eventually, the foodgrain prices rose high.
(iv)    By the end of the eighteenth century, France was at war with England. This disrupted trade and import of foodgrains from Europe. Prices of food grains increased encouraging landowners to enclose lands. Enclosures were also important for long-term investments on land and to plan crop rotations for maintaining soil fertility. Thus, the Parliament passed the Enclosure Acts.

V.    Source-based Question

Q.    Read the following extract (Source E) taken from NCERT textbook, page 133 and answer the questions that follow:

In 1839, the Chinese Emperor sent Lin Ze-xu to Canton as a Special Commissioner with instructions to stop the opium trade. After he arrived in Canton in the spring of 1839, Lin arrested 1,600 men involved in the trade, and confiscated 11,000 pounds of opium. Then he forced the foreign factories to hand over their stocks of opium, burnt 20,000 crates of opium and blew the ashes to the wind. When he announced that Canton was closed to foreign trade, Britain declared war. Defeated in the Opium War (1837-42) , the Chinese were forced to accept the humiliating terms of the subsequent treaties, legalizing opium trade and opening up China to foreign merchants.
Before the war, Lin wrote a strong letter Queen Victoria criticizing the trade in opium. Here is an extract from Lin’s ‘Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria’.
“All those people in China who sell opium or smoke opium should receive the death penalty. We trace the crime of those barbarians who through the years have been selling opium, then the deep harm they have wrought and the great profit they have usurped should fundamentally justify their execution according to law. …
We find your country is sixty or seventy thousand li [three li make one mile, ordinarily] from China. Yet there are barbarian ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return us the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people?...Let us ask, where is your conscience? I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries — how much less to China!”

Source: From Ssuyu Teng and John Fairbank, China’s 
 Response to the West (1954)

(i)    When did the Chinese Emperor send a Special Commissioner to stop the opium trade?
(ii)    Why did the Emperor want to stop the opium trade? Did he get success in his effort?
(iii)    What did the Special Commissioner estimate?

Ans.(i) In 1839, the Chinese Emperor sent Lin Ze-xu to Canton as a Special Commissioner with instructions to stop the opium trade.
(ii)    The Emperor was aware of the dangers of opium addiction. Therefore, he wanted to stop its trade.
                No, he did not get success in his effort because Britain, by declaring a war against China, forced it to legalize opium trade.
(iii)    Lin Ze-xu, the Special Commissioner at Canton in 1839, estimated that there were over 4 million opium smokers in China.

VI.     Picture-based Question

Q.    Observe the picture given below, taken from NCERT Textbook page 129, carefully and answer the following questions:

Class 5 EVS Question Answers - Documents

(i)    What has been shown in the above picture?
(ii)    When and why did it take place? [HOTS]

Ans.(i) The above picture is of Black Blizzard. It refers to the violent terrifying  dust-storms that began blowing over the southern plains of America during 1930s. 
(ii)    The expansion of wheat agriculture led to terrifying dust-storms in the 1930s. In the early 19th century, zealous farmers had recklessly uprooted all vegetation, and tractors had turned the soil over and broken the sod into dust. As a result, the whole region of the Great Plains had become a dust bowl.

Test Your Skills
    1.    Mention any two disadvantages of the mechanical harvesting machines in the USA.
    2.    Name the countries which were involved in ‘Triangular Trade’.
    3.    What is meant by the Enclosure Movement? What problems did it pose before the poor?
    4.    Under what circumstances did terrifying dust-storms begin to blow over the southern plains?

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