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What is a centromere ?how does the position of centromere form the basis of classification of chromosomes.?
Ref: https://edurev.in/question/661894/What-is-a-centromere-how-does-the-position-of-centromere-form-the-basis-of-classification-of-chromos

Centromere is a constriction present on the chromosomes where the chromatids are held together.

Chromosomes are divided into four types based on the position of the centromere.

(i) Metacentric chromosome

The chromosomes in which the centromere is present in the middle and divides the chromosome into two equal arms is known as a metacentric chromosome. During anaphase, they appear V-Shaped.


Centromere - Class 11


(ii) Sub-metacentric chromosome

The chromosome in which the centromere is slightly away from the middle region is known as a sub-metacentric chromosome. In this, one arm is slightly longer than the other. During anaphase, they appear L-Shaped.

Centromere - Class 11


(iii) Acrocentric chromosome

The chromosome in which the centromere is located close to one of the terminal ends is known as an acrocentric chromosome. In this, one arm is extremely long and the other is extremely short. During anaphase, they appear J-Shaped.

Centromere - Class 11


(iv) Telocentric chromosome

The chromosome in which the centromere is located at one of the terminal ends is known as a telocentric chromosome. During anaphase, they appear i-Shaped.

Centromere - Class 11

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FAQs on Centromere - Class 11

1. What is a centromere?
Ans. A centromere is a region of a chromosome that plays a crucial role in cell division. It is responsible for the attachment of the chromosome to the spindle fibers during cell division, ensuring proper segregation of genetic material.
2. How does a centromere function during cell division?
Ans. During cell division, the centromere acts as a point of attachment for the spindle fibers, which are responsible for pulling the chromosomes apart. It ensures that each newly formed cell receives the correct number of chromosomes, promoting genetic stability.
3. Are all centromeres the same?
Ans. No, centromeres can vary in structure and organization across different organisms. There are three main types of centromeres: point centromeres, regional centromeres, and holocentromeres. Point centromeres are small and found in fungi and some protists, regional centromeres are larger and found in most eukaryotes, and holocentromeres are distributed along the entire length of the chromosome and found in some insects and plants.
4. Can centromeres undergo mutations?
Ans. Yes, centromeres can undergo mutations. However, mutations in the centromere region are often detrimental as they can lead to errors in chromosome segregation during cell division. These errors can result in chromosomal abnormalities and genetic disorders.
5. How can studying centromeres contribute to medical research?
Ans. Studying centromeres is crucial for understanding the mechanisms behind chromosome segregation and genetic stability. Abnormalities in centromere function have been linked to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders. By understanding centromere biology, researchers can develop targeted therapies and diagnostic tools for these conditions.
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